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A Genealogist’s Historical Timeline of California, 1535 – 1860

California Name Lists
The following timeline is excerpted from William Dollarhide’s new book, California Name Lists, 1700 – 2011, with a selection of National Name Lists, 1600s – Present.

For genealogical research in California, the following timeline of events should help any genealogist understand the area with an historical and genealogical point of view:

1535-1542 Spanish Claims. The first European visitors to the Pacific coast of North America were convinced that California was really an island. In 1535, Hernando Cortes was the first to see California, and in 1539, Francisco de Uloa explored the gulf of California. The first claim came in 1542 when explorer Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo anchored his ship in San Diego Bay and claimed the entire “island” for Spain, which he named California. One explanation for the name was that Cabrillo had been reading Ordoez de Montalvo’s romance of chivalry, Las Sergas de Esplandian (Madrid, 1510), in which is told of black Amazons ruling an island of the name California near the Indies. No one can find any other reference to the name California before 1542, and it has no other known Spanish origin.

1579 British Claim. Never one to cede anything to the Spanish, Sir Francis Drake sailed up the Pacific Coast beyond San Francisco Bay and claimed the entire region for England, naming the area New Albion. But the British claim was never reinforced by colonization.

1602 Spanish Claims Confirmed. Sebastian VizcaNíno charted the Pacific Coast and confirmed Spain’s claim to the region, from the southern tip of present Baja California, Mexico to the northern tip of present Vancouver Island, British Columbia.

1603-1768. Spanish Presidios Established. For the next 165 years, Baja (lower) California and Alta (upper) California were part of New Spain, which was a description of all Spanish claims in the New World. During this time, California was mostly ignored by Europeans, except as a re-supply point for Spanish ships sailing from Manila and other Pacific outposts before returning to Spain. During the late 1600s a few presidios (forts) were established as protection for the re-supply ports, such as the presidios at Monterey Bay and San Diego Bay. The Spanish were reacting to the intrusion of Russian and British trading posts established just north of San Francisco Bay, but both intruders left California after only a few years.

1769-1820 Spanish Colonial Era. The Spanish colonization of California did not really begin until the arrival of Junipero Serra in 1769. Serra was the Franciscan monk who founded the first nine California missions, ranging from San Diego Bay to San Francisco Bay. The Spanish were to establish a total of 21 missions, all connected with a wagon road called the El Camino Real (the Royal Road). For the most part, the Spanish missions were successful in converting the local Indians to Roman Catholicism, but a few California Indian tribes resisted by attacking and burning the missions. In response, the Spanish government provided military protection for the missions by establishing several more presidios, evenly distributed between the coastal missions. During the Spanish era, over 100 presidios were established. Spanish pueblos (communal villages) were the first civilian towns in California. Mission workers were provided by the Catholic Church, while the presidios were manned by Spanish soldiers. But to provide civilian farmers and workers for the pueblos, incentives were required to get people to move there, and thus, a system of land grants, tax breaks, and other incentives was established. To attract settlers to the new towns, the Spanish government provided free land, livestock, farming equipment, and an annual allowance for the purchase of clothing and other supplies. In addition, the settlers were exempt from all taxes for five years. In return for this aid, the settlers were required to sell their surplus agricultural products to the presidios. The Spanish created three pueblos in California, the first was San José, founded in 1777. It was followed in 1781 with El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Angeles (the Town of Our Lady Queen of the Angels). By 1790, the Los Angeles pueblo had 28 households and a population of 139. By 1800 Los Angeles had 70 households and a population of 315. The villa de Branciforte near present Santa Cruz was another pueblo established in 1797, developed primarily as a place for discharged soldiers from the presidios, but the Branciforte pueblo was never able to attract many soldiers and was abandoned in 1802. The San José and Los Angeles pueblos were still active when California became an American possession in 1848.

1819 Adams-Onis Treaty. The treaty’s initial agreement involved Spain’s cession of Florida to the U.S., but also set the boundary between the U.S. and Spanish Mexico, from Louisiana to the Oregon Country. In this treaty, the line between the Oregon Country and Spanish California was set as the 42nd parallel, where it remains today. The treaty was named after John Quincy Adams, U.S. Secretary of State, and Luis de Onis, the Spanish Foreign Minister, the parties who signed the treaty at Washington on February 22, 1819. John Quincy Adams was given credit for a brilliant piece of diplomacy by adding the western boundary settlements with Spain to the Florida Purchase. It was considered his crowning achievement, before, during, or after his presidency.

1821-1848 Mexican Era. Colonial Spanish rule in California ended when Mexico gained independence from Spain in February 1821, but the Californios never heard about it until the new Mexican governor arrived in November 1822. At first, the transition of power had no change to the California way of life. But within just a few years, the mission system in California came to an end. As early as 1826, Americans began visiting California after establishing overland routes from the Rocky Mountains. After some initial resistance, the Californios accepted their intrusion into the area. As the most northern and western province of Mexico, California had few manufactured goods, and the Americans were welcomed for the items they brought for trade. By the early 1830s, the mission communities established by the Spanish were absorbed into the Mexican civilian government. The mission properties were distributed to soldiers in lieu of wages and to Mexican citizens in return for political favors. The local natives who remained were assimilated into the local society serving as laborers, household servants and vaqueros (cowboys). The Mexican government did create more pueblos, mostly from converted missions (such as those in Sonoma and San Diego). But mainly, Mexico concentrated on the land grant process which the Spanish had initiated. With the demise of the Mission system, California evolved into an isolated province dominated by a series of large ranchos, some as large as 100,000 acres in size. By 1840, huge cattle ranches stretched from San Diego Bay to San Francisco Bay, including the great Central Valley of California.

1840s Manifest Destiny. In 1841, the first wagon train left Missouri for California, even though the area was not part of the United States, and the settlers had no guarantee they would be able to stay. During the 1840s, the American government was under the influence of an unofficial but practiced policy called “manifest destiny,” meaning the U.S. believed they had the God-given right to take the entire continent by any means.

1845 Texas Annexation. Clearly, Americans began to covet the area of the southwest, and in fact, many historians feel that the annexation of Texas in 1845 led to a war that was as much to capture California and New Mexico from Mexico as it was to take the Rio Grande valley. After the 1845 annexation of Texas, the U.S. honored the Republic of Texas claim to the Rio Grande valley. This claim was the basis for the Mexican-American War, which began in December 1845 when U.S. forces invaded the Rio Grande valley and took possession of the area.

1846 Oregon Country. Since a treaty in 1818, the U.S. and Britain had agreed to joint occupancy of the Oregon Country, defined loosely as running from the Boundary (Siskiyou) Mountains of California to the Russian America boundary at about the 54th parallel and from the Pacific Ocean to the Continental Divide. In 1819, the Adams-Onis Treaty set the Oregon boundary with California as the 42nd parallel. Finally, in 1846, the U.S. settled with Britain its long-held claim to the Oregon Country, establishing the 49th parallel as the northern boundary with British territory, and confirming the southern boundary of Oregon with California as the 42nd parallel.

1848 Mexican Cession

1848 Mexican Cession. In 1848, as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ending the war with Mexico, the U.S. officially acquired the Rio Grande area by conquest, the portion which extended upriver through present-day New Mexico and into Colorado. In satisfaction of its “manifest destiny” urges, the U.S. also acquired from Mexico the cession of California and New Mexico, which included present Colorado (west of the continental divide), and all of the present states of Utah, Nevada, and California. As compensation for the Mexican Cession, the U.S. paid Mexico 18 million dollars for an area that was comparable in size to the Louisiana Purchase, and was over half of the Republic of Mexico. With the addition of the Oregon Country in 1846, and areas acquired from Mexico in 1848, the United States, for the first time, was a nation from “sea to shining sea,” a goal of American expansionists dating back to George Washington and Thomas Jefferson. “Manifest destiny” was no longer a goal, it was a reality.

1849-1860 Gold Rush, Statehood, and Population Surge. Immediately after becoming an American possession in May 1848, California was to rapidly expand, in fact the dramatic expansion was more than anyone could have foretold. The reason for California’s sudden rise, of course, was that gold was discovered, creating a stampede of prospectors from all over North America. In just a few months, the population in California went from less than 2,000 Americans in December 1848 to nearly 93,000 (counted in the June 1850 federal census). California was never a territory, and after the State Constitutional Convention convened in Monterey in late 1849 and early 1850, Congress declared California a state on 9 September 1850. Statehood led to the establishment of a state government that rapidly organized the entire state into counties, taxing districts, and voting precincts – units of government that quickly began creating name lists of its constituents. By 1852, a total of 260,949 people had come to California, per the state census of that year. And by 1860, just ten years after becoming a state, nearly 380,000 people had come to California.

While the gold fields of Northern California and the first transcontinental railroad in 1869 contributed heavily to the growth of the state through the latter half of the 19th Century, the growth of Southern California in the early 20th Century was even greater. One explanation came from Buckminster Fuller, who observed that “the entire continent is tilted and everything loose slides into Southern California.”

See: California Name Lists, 1700 – 2011, with a selection of National Name Lists, 1600s – Present.

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Findmypast.com Discovers the Royal Baby will be Related to Other Celebrity Kids

FindMyPast.Com
The following is from FindMyPast.com:

New prince or princess shares ancestry with Beyoncé, Brangelina and Hilary Duff offspring

LOS ANGELES (July 8, 2013) – As the world waits with bated breath for the birth of the heir to the British throne, findmypast.com, an international leader in online family history, has uncovered His or Her Royal Highness’ celebrity cousins.

Prince William and Kate Middleton may expect petitions for palace play dates from the following celebrity royalty whose children are related to the Royal Baby:

11th cousins: Jennifer Garner and Ben Affleck’s three children Violet Anne, Seraphina Rose Elizabeth and Samuel Garner Affleck. With lines connecting through Affleck and the Royal Baby’s grandmother, Princess Diana, this is the closest celebrity/royal relationship reported by findmypast.com.

22nd cousin: Uma Thurman and Arpad Busson’s daughter, Rosalind Arusha Arkadina Altalune Florence Thurman-Busson.

20th cousins twice removed: Maggie Gyllenhaal and Peter Sarsgaard’s two daughters, Ramona and Gloria Ray Sarsgaard.

19th cousin once removed: Hilary Duff and Mike Comrie’s son Luca Cruz Comrie. Duff used to top the list of celebrities most closely related to the Queen as her 18th cousin. The Queen and Duff can both trace their ancestry to King Edward III.

23rd cousin twice removed: Beyoncé Knowles and Jay-Z’s daughter Blue Ivy Carter. Blue Ivy’s relation to the Queen comes through French royal heritage.

27th cousins: Brad Pitt and Angelina Jolie’s biological brood, including daughter Shiloh Nouvel Jolie-Pitt. Shiloh is related to the royal family through both parents, although Pitt has more royal ties than Jolie.

26th cousins thrice removed: Celine Dion and Rene Angelil’s three kids, Rene-Charles, Eddy and Nelson Angelil.

“While not surprising, the closest connection unearthed among Hollywood’s babies comes from a connection to the late Princess Diana, the royal baby’s grandmother,” said D. Joshua Taylor, findmypast.com’s lead genealogist. “Diana’s ancestry includes a number of early New England families, which means a large number of Americans will find a closer kinship with the heir to the throne than to the current Queen. Therefore, you don’t have to be a celebrity to trace your ancestry to the royal family. Millions of Americans are related to royalty and their family tree is just waiting to be discovered.”

The people most likely to be related to the royal family can trace their ancestry to England or New England, particularly Massachusetts and Connecticut. Although some Southerners will also find their lineage leads to the monarchy.

Findmypast.com’s expertise at digitizing historical records and uniting communities provides the tools to help people connect with their past.

To learn more about findmypast.com or to get started on your own family history search:

About findmypast.com
Findmypast.com, owned by brightsolid, provides the most complete and relevant records in online family history and genealogy research. Findmypast members worldwide share our passion, and rely on our expertise to help them discover the roots to their family tree. Our accurate search tools and data featuring unique and core U.S., English, Welsh, Scottish, Irish, Australian and New Zealand records dating back as far as the 7th century, help both professional and budding genealogists find their past. Findmypast.com works closely with the genealogy community, including local libraries, archives, societies, and other organizations from around the world, to preserve, digitize and provide access to historical records and genealogical publications. To learn more, visit www.findmypast.com, the findmypast.com blog, Facebook or Twitter.

About brightsolid
Findmypast.com is owned by brightsolid online publishing, a British-owned world leader in online genealogy, with over 45 years’ experience in family history and a record of online innovation in the field of family history nearly two decades long. With nearly 18 million registered users across its family of online genealogy brands, brightsolid hosts more than a billion genealogical records from across the globe.

Methodology
Using published research from a variety of sources, including the work of Gary Boyd Roberts (http://www.notablekin.org) and Leo van de Pas (http://www.genealogics.org) considered by many to be the leading authorities on royal descents, findmypast.com analyzed the ancestry of each celebrity through a computer genealogy database program.

Findmypast.com also looked at the full known ancestry of Queen Elizabeth II to identify where her Majesty’s lineage intersected with each celebrity. From there, the team examined connections into the ancestry of Catherine Middleton and Diana, Princess of Wales. Finally a computer program was used to calculate their relationship.

As genealogical research can be unpredictable, the known descents of each celebrity are still subject to further research and discovery.

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American Indian Tribal Tract Reference Maps Now Available Online

Muckleshoot Reservation Map - 1 of 7
Many maps were created for the 2010 Census. One of these resources is the “Tribal Tract Reference Maps.”

The following is from the website:

These federal American Indian reservation-based maps show and label tribal census tracts and tribal block groups as delineated to support 2010 Census data dissemination. These maps also show the boundaries and names of American Indian reservations, off-reservation trust lands (ORTLs), Alaska Native areas, Hawaiian home lands, states, counties, county subdivisions, and places. Additionally, these maps display a base feature network including roads, railroads, and water bodies. These features are labeled as map scale permits. Each entity is covered by one or more parent map sheets at a single scale. An index map showing the sheet configuration is included for all entities requiring more than one parent map sheet. The map sheet size is 36 by 32 inches.

Using the maps online, you will want to blow them up to 150% or so. I found most that I had an interest in came onscreen as a PDF at 25%. Having lived in Western Washington for 40 years, I have an interest in the Puyallup and Muckleshoot Indian reservations. Each of these reservations has 7 pdf maps available.

Thanks to Accessible Archives for posting an item on Facebook about these maps.

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Search for Images Online by Usage Rights

Bing Scotland Maps
As a blogger, I’m always looking for images that I can use to illustrate what I’m writing about. As a genealogist, I’m often looking for images to illustrate a family story. Typically I’ve just used the Google Image search, and once I find an image, I drill down in an attempt to find out if the image is available to use on the blog or in my story without have to jump through a bunch of hoops.

Well – thanks to Microsoft, the search for images by License Type has become available to us. Using Bing/Images, we can now search for images by the following categories:

  • All
  • Public Domain
  • Free to Share and Use
  • Free to Share and Use Commercially
  • Free to Modify, Share, and Use
  • Free to Modify, Share and Use Commercially
  • Learn More

Going to the Bing/Images website, type in the search terms that you want to look for. Example – Scotland Maps. Then click on the “license” tab in the toolbar at the top of the page. In this case, I will select: “Free to Share and Use.” This would be the category I would most often use in creating an ilustration for a blog post. In this case, the number of hits is reduced to 53,900 from 288,000 (for “All”). Once I find a map I’d like to use, then I’d drill down on that illustration to make sure that I can actually use it. However, Bing just simplified that process by allowing me to “Search by License.”

The “learn more” link gives detailed information about the categories, and what to do once you find an image that you’d like to use.

I will be using Bing/Images a lot! A great resource…

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Colorado Name Lists 1858-1998, with a selection of National Name Lists, 1600s – Present

According to Leland Meitzler:

“Name lists are key to success in any genealogical endeavor. Name lists, be they national, state, county, or even city or town in scope, can help nail down the precise place where one’s ancestor may have lived. And if that can be done, further records, usually found on a local level, will now be accessible to research. But success depends on knowing where the ancestor resided. This is where Dollarhide’s Name List guides can make the difference.”

What is the Real Value of Name Lists?

The short answer is greater than you think. The best answer to this question can be found in the following article by William Dollarhide: What are Name Lists?

 

What’s in the Colorado edition?

fr0219Continuing our review for each of William Dollarhide’s name lists books, we detail the contents of Colorado Name Lists 1858-1998, with a selection of National Name Lists, 1600s – Present. Currently, there are nine new names lists books, and we are providing details on each.

In this book, names lists are detailed in the following database categories (with 351 total links for the state of Colorado):

  • Territorial & State Census Records
  • State and County Court Records
  • Directories
  • State Militia Lists
  • State Veterans & Pensioners Lists
  • Tax Lists
  • Vital Records
  • Voter Lists

The contents of the Colorado section of the guide include:

  • 1860 Map of Pre-Territorial Colorado
  • Colorado Name Lists
  • Historical Timeline for Colorado, 1541-1900
  • Introduction to Colorado’s Territorial & Statewide Name Lists
  • Online Indexes at the Colorado State Archives
  • Bibliography of Colorado Name Lists, 1858-1998

Not only does this volume give a detailed bibliography of Name Lists available for the state, but links to websites, FHL book & microfilm numbers, archive references, maps, and key historical information make this volume invaluable to the researcher looking to extend their lines and fill in the family tree.

National Names Lists information included with every volume:

The National Names Lists have these categories (244 entries in all):

  • Federal Census Records
  • Immigration Lists
  • U.S. Military Lists
  • U.S. Veterans Records
  • U.S. Pension Records
  • National Vital Record

There are also a number of maps, including:

  • 1899 Alaska & Klondike Region
  • 1880-1940 Alaska Census Jurisdictions
  • 1763 British North America
  • 1784-1802 Western Land Cessions
  • 1790 United States
  • 1800 United States
  • 1810 United States
  • 1820 United States
  • 1830 United States
  • 1840 United States
  • 1850 United States
  • 1860 United States
  • 1870-1880 United States
  • 1890-1940 United States

This new series is bound to be a big hit with genealogists. Don’t forget, the introductory offer. If you order a print copy of the book you not only get 15% off, but you also will receive a FREE copy of the eBook version in  .PDF (Adobe Acrobat) format. The .PDF version is fully hyperlinked to take you quickly to each site, and can be viewed on any device or computer supporting Acrobat files, which is virtually every computer, laptop, tablet, and smart device on the market.

Order your copy of Colorado Name Lists 1858-1998, with a selection of National Name Lists, 1600s – Present while the deals are good, from Family Roots Publishing; Temporary Price: $16.11 for both the paper and electronic versions together. Or, get the eBook version alone for just $12.50.

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More Historic Oregon Newspapers

Nearly two years ago I posted links to 30 digitized historic Oregon Newpapers posted by the University of Oregon. At that time, they had about 180,000 page posted and the site was quickly developing into an important source of genealogical data. Although I can’t find a number of pages listed on the site, I’m sure that it’s now over 300,000. Over 92,000 pages of historic newspaper content from Ashland, Enterprise, Grants Pass, St. Helens, Pendleton, Portland, Salem, The Dalles, and Toledo have just been added according to an Oregon Digital Newspaper Program News Release. Sixty-six titles from 24 Oregon communities are now available to search. Following are links to the digitized historic Oregon newspaper titles, as well as links to other Oregon Newspaper resources.

The website was made possible through the Oregon Digital Newspaper Program (ODNP) and is the culmination of over two years of work by program staff at the University of Oregon Libraries, in collaboration with the Library of Congress, the National Endowment for the Humanities and a number of state agencies & stakeholders.

For additional resources dealing with Oregon newspapers, online and on microfilm, check the links at the end of the alphabetical place listing.

Check out the digitized Oregon newspapers by clicking on the links below:

Newspaper Name – City & State – Publication Span – Earliest Digitized Issue – Latest Digitized Issue

ASHLAND
Ashland daily tidings; Ashland, Or., 1919-1970; 1919-09-021919-09-16

Ashland tidings; Ashland, Or., 1876-1919; 1912-05-301919-08-29

Ashland weekly tidings; Ashland, Or., 1919-1924; 1919-09-241922-12-27

ASTORIA
The Daily Morning Astorian; Astoria, Or., 1883-1899; 1883-11-101890-12-31

Tri-Weekly Astorian; Astoria, Or., 1873-1874; 1873-07-011874-01-31

The Daily Astorian; Astoria, Or., 187?-1883; 1876-05-011883-11-09

BANDON
Bandon recorder; Bandon, Or., 188?-1910; 1890-01-031905-10-19

Semi-weekly Bandon recorder; Bandon, Or., 1910-1915; 1913-10-211915-03-26

The Bandon recorder; Bandon, Or., 1915-19??; 1915-04-061916-06-27

BEND
The Bend Bulletin; Bend, Or., 1903-1931; 1903-03-271922-12-28

BURNS
The Times-Herald; Burns, Harney County, Or., 1896-1929; 1906-01-061920-12-25

CANYON CITY
Grant County news; Canyon City, Or., 1879-05-101908-07-09

COTTAGE GROVE
Bohemia nugget; Cottage Grove, Or., 1899-1907; 1899-01-201907-12-25

ENTERPRISE
The News-record; Enterprise, Wallowa County, Or., 1907-1910; 1907-08-311910-12-28

Enterprise news-record; Enterprise, Wallowa County, Or., 1910-1911; 1910-12-311911-06-07

Wallowa County Chieftain; Enterprise, Or., 1909-1911; 1909-01-141910-12-29

EUGENE
The State Republican; Eugene City, Or., 1862-1863; 1862-01-011863-04-11

Broad-axe tribune; Eugene, Lane County, Or., 189?-189?; 1894-11-241894-11-24

Broad-axe; Eugene, Lane County, Or., 189?-19??; 1895-06-151900-02-28

GRANTS PASS
Rogue River courier; Grants Pass, Or., 1886-1927; 1900-09-271913-12-26

Rogue River courier; Grants Pass, Or., 19??-1918; 1913-05-091918-12-31

HOULTON
The Columbia register; Houlton, Columbia County, Or., 1904-1906; 1904-04-291906-06-01

JACKSONVILLE
The Table Rock Sentinel; Jacksonville, Or., 1855-1858; 1856-01-051858-01-09

Oregon Sentinel; Jacksonville, Or., 1858-1888; 1858-01-161888-03-15

JOSEPH
Wallowa Chieftain; Joseph, Union County, Or., 1884-1909; 1902-01-021909-01-07

KLAMATH FALLS
The Evening Herald; Klamath Falls, Or., 1906-1942; 1908-02-011922-12-30

LAKEVIEW
Lake County examiner; Lakeview, Lake County, Or., 1880-1915; 1900-08-301914-06-25

MADRAS
The Madras pioneer; Madras, Crook County, Or., 1904-current; 1904-08-251912-12-26

MARSHFIELD
The Coast mail; Marshfield, Or., 187?-1902; 1879-05-171902-11-22

Daily Coast Mail; Marshfield, Or., 1902-1906; 1902-06-101904-12-21

Weekly Coast Mail; Marshfield, Coos County, Or., 1902-1906; 1902-11-291904-07-09

The Coos Bay Times; Marshfield, Or., 1906-1957; 1907-04-211916-05-23

MEDFORD
Medford mail tribune; Medford, Or., 1909-1989; 1909-11-011916-07-31

Medford Mail Tribune; Medford, Or., 1909-1989; 1907-11-061916-07-31

ONTARIO
The Ontario Argus; Ontario, Or., 1???-1947; 1909-06-111922-12-28

OREGON CITY
Oregon Spectator; Oregon City, O.T. [i.e. Or.], 1846-1855; 1846-02-051855-02-10

Oregon free press; Oregon City [Or.], 1848-1848; 1848-04-151848-11-25

PENDLETON
The east Oregonian; Pendleton, Umatilla County, Or., 1875-1911; 1877-01-061881-03-12

East Oregonian: E.O.; Pendleton, Umatilla Co., Or., 1888-current; 1877-01-061901-03-18

East Oregonian: E.O; Pendleton, Umatilla Co., Or., 1888-current; 1888-03-011912-05-16

PORTLAND
The Oregonian; Portland, O.T. [Or.], 1850-1854; 1850-12-041850-12-04

The New Northwest; Portland, Or., 1871-1887; 1871-05-051881-12-29

Morning Oregonian; Portland, Or., 1861-1937; 1850-12-041906-04-30

Morning Oregonian; Portland, Or., 1861-1937; 1878-09-191922-01-31

The Sunday Oregonian; Portland, Ore., 1881-current; 1895-01-061922-01-29

The New Age; Portland, Or., 1896-1905; 1899-11-251905-05-06

Portland New Age; Portland, Or., 1905-1907; 1906-04-281907-04-20

The Oregon Daily Journal; Portland, Or., 1902-1972; 1904-07-011907-10-02

RICHLAND
Eagle Valley news; Richland, Or., 191?-1919; 1914-06-181919-07-10

ROSEBURG
The Plaindealer; Roseburg, Or., 1870-190?; 1895-01-031905-11-30

SAINT HELENS
The Columbian; St. Helens, Columbia County, Or., 1880-1886; 1882-03-101886-02-04

St. Helens mist; St. Helens, Or., 1913-1933; 1914-06-191921-04-22

SAINT JOHNS
St. Johns Review; Saint Johns, Or., 1904-current; 1904-11-111922-12-29

SALEM
Willamette Farmer; Salem, Or., 1869-1887; 1869-06-281887-08-26

Evening Capital Journal; Salem, Or., 1888-1893 ; 1888-03-011893-06-24

Capital Journal; Salem, Or., 1893-1895; 1893-06-261895-12-31

Daily Capital Journal; Salem, Or., 1896-1899; 1896-01-011899-06-29

The Daily Journal; Salem, Or., 1899-1903; 1899-06-301903-11-24

Daily Capital Journal; Salem, Or., 1903-1919; 1903-11-251909-10-30

Daily capital journal.; Salem, Or., 1903-1919; 1903-11-251916-12-08

SCOTTSBURG
The Umpqua Weekly Gazette; Scottsburg, O.T. [Or.], 1854-1855; 1854-01-061855-08-23

Umpqua Gazette; Scottsburg, O.T. [Or.], 1855-1855; 1855-10-031855-10-03

SPRINGFIELD
The Springfield news; Springfield, Lane County, Or., 19??-1914; 1907-01-111907-07-16

The Springfield news; Springfield, Lane County, Or., 1916-current; 1916-05-151922-12-28

The Lane County news; Springfield, Lane County, Or., 1914-1916 1915-02-041916-05-11

SUMPTER
The Sumpter miner; Sumpter, Or., 1899-1905; 1899-09-131905-04-12

THE DALLES
The daily mountaineer; Dalles, Or., 1861-1866; 1864-02-201866-06-07

The Dalles daily chronicle; The Dalles, Or., 1890-1948; 1890-12-151921-06-30

The Dalles times-mountaineer; The Dalles, Or., 1882-1904; 1889-08-311899-12-30

The Dalles weekly chronicle; The Dalles, Or., 1890-1947; 1890-12-201898-12-31

TILLAMOOK
Tillamook Herald; Tillamook, Tillamook County, Or., 1896-1934; 1913-01-031922-05-11

TOLEDO
Lincoln County leader; Toledo, Lincoln County, Or., 1893-1987; 1893-03-091922-12-28

UNION
The Oregon scout; Union, Union County, Or., 188?-1918; 1884-12-121891-12-31

VALE
Malheur enterprise; Vale, Or., 1909-current; 1909-11-201922-12-30

MORE OREGON NEWSPAPER RESOURCES

Historical essays for newspaper titles in Historic Oregon Newspapers.

Oregon Newspapers on Microfilm, Listed by County. A list of microfilm held at the University of Oregon Library. Most of this film was produced by the Library’s Oregon Newspaper Project and are available for purchase, or may be borrowed through your local library. Place purchase requests through ONP (email: onp@uoregon.edu) or call 541-346-1822. Place interlibrary loan requests and research requests through Microforms (email: micro@uoregon.edu).

More Historic Oregon Newspapers Online – Listed by County

Online Digital collections from the University of Oregon and Oregon State University

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State Boundaries of America: How, Why, and When American State Lines Where Formed

hbh4456State Boundaries of America: How, Why, and When American State Lines Where Formed offers far more information about state boundaries than I ever expected. Since I was a kid, I have loved looking at maps. On a U.S. map it’s easy to see where some state boundaries follow natural formations such as rivers, while others are marked by clear, straight lines. But, why exactly were these formations or lines chosen, who chose them, what made them official? These questions are answered through a review of some of the earliest documents related to these boundaries.

State Boundaries is not a map book. It is not even just a basic history. The book is a cross-referenced dataset of the portions of Royal Charters, Royal  Grants, International Treaties, and U.S. Territorial or Federal Statues covering 300 plus years of history that created existing state boundaries. The author makes note that most state boundaries were in place long before the colonies, territories, etc. became states. The author’s intent is to:

  • “delineate the source of each state line component
  • codify them as natural (e.g. rivers) or otherwise and by what means
  • provide how early each state boundary was a real irrefutable boundary before each “State” was politically admitted to the Union
  • include sufficient detail and reference for further study”

Information in the book is presented in three parts, the boundaries, consolidated list of grants, and U.S. laws and treaties. Together, these parts give the details to understanding final state boundaries. This is an excellent reference for any library.

 

Table of Contents

Introduction

Original Thirteen (1606-1776)

Free or Slave (1776-1835)

Civil War ERA (1835-1862)

Sodbuster + (1862-1889)

Consolidated list of grants, treaties, U.S. Law

Appendices

  1. State Line Segments
  2. Relevant English Rulers 1509-1820
  3. Charters, Grants, Dominions, Provinces, Districts, Territories, States, Commonwealth, U.S. Statues, Other Terms
  4. Public Land Survey System
  5. Technology and Social Advances
  6. Modern Legal Boundary Definition Example: Virginia (1 OCT 2005)

Bibliography

References

Alphabetical State Index

 

State Boundaries of America: How, Why, and When American State Lines Where Formed is available from Family Roots Publishing; Price: $23.52.

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California Name Lists 1700-2011, with a selection of National Name Lists, 1600s – Present

fr0217Continuing our review for each of William Dollarhide’s name lists books, we detail the contents of California Name Lists 1700-2011, with a selection of National Name Lists, 1600s – Present. Currently, there are nine new names lists books, and we are providing details on each.

In this book, names lists are detailed in the following database categories (with 415 total links for the state of California):

  • Colonial & State Census Records
  • State and County Court Records
  • Directories
  • State Militia Lists
  • State Veterans & Pensioners Lists
  • Tax Lists
  • Vital Records
  • Great Registers

The contents of the California section of the guide include:

  • 1850-1852 California Map
  • California Name Lists
  • Historical Timeline for California, 1535-1854
  • Introduction, California’s Spanish, Mexican, and State Name Lists
  • Bibliography of California Name Lists, 1700-2011

Not only does this volume give a detailed bibliography of Name Lists available for the state, but links to websites, FHL book & microfilm numbers, archive references, maps, and key historical information make this volume invaluable to the researcher looking to extend their lines and fill in the family tree.

National Names Lists information included with every volume:

The National Names Lists have these categories (244 entries in all):

  • Federal Census Records
  • Immigration Lists
  • U.S. Military Lists
  • U.S. Veterans Records
  • U.S. Pension Records
  • National Vital Record

There are also a number of maps, including:

  • 1899 Alaska & Klondike Region
  • 1880-1940 Alaska Census Jurisdictions
  • 1763 British North America
  • 1784-1802 Western Land Cessions
  • 1790 United States
  • 1800 United States
  • 1810 United States
  • 1820 United States
  • 1830 United States
  • 1840 United States
  • 1850 United States
  • 1860 United States
  • 1870-1880 United States
  • 1890-1940 United States

In review, Name Lists are:

An important step in finding the place of residence for a person is the use of published censuses and census substitutes. Most genealogists are familiar with the use of federal census records – but there are a myriad of census substitutes as well. A census substitute may take the form of a territorial/state census, court record, militia list, directory, veterans’ list, tax list, or voter list. We can combine these two categories into one by calling them all “Name Lists.” And, because a name list identifies the residents of an area from various local, state, and national sources – a name list becomes a genealogist’s best place-finding tool. A good example is when a genealogist learns from a death certificate that an ancestor was born in Alabama. What needs to be done first is find the county of residence in Alabama. An Alabama name list is the first tool we can use to find the exact place of residence there. Genealogists learn early that finding the county of residence for an ancestor is a break-through in their research efforts. That is because the typical American courthouse is a treasure chest of genealogical information about the residents of a county. The courthouse is where we find birth, marriage, death, and burial records; court records, e.g., orphans, wills, probates, deeds, and property records; and many other documents with specific genealogical revelations.”

“Name lists are key to success in any genealogical endeavor. Name lists, be they national, state, county, or even city or town in scope, can help nail down the precise place where one’s ancestor may have lived. And if that can be done, further records, usually found on a local level, will now be accessible to research. But success depends on knowing where the ancestor resided. This is where Dollarhide’s Name List guides can make the difference.”

This new series is bound to be a big hit with genealogists. Don’t forget, the introductory offer. If you order a print copy of the book you not only get 15% off, but you also will receive a FREE copy of the eBook version in  .PDF (Adobe Acrobat) format. The .PDF version is fully hyperlinked to take you quickly to each site, and can be viewed on any device or computer supporting Acrobat files, which is virtually every computer, laptop, tablet, and smart device on the market.

Order your copy of California Name Lists 1700-2011, with a selection of National Name Lists, 1600s – Present while the deals are good, from Family Roots Publishing; Temporary Price: $16.11 for both the paper and electronic versions together. Or, get the eBook version alone for just $12.50.

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NGS Research in the States Series: Missouri

ngs06“Missouri was the land of the Osage and their rival tribes. The jumping-off place for Lewis and Clark’s expedition of discovery. The early home to French trappers, mountain men, and Spanish garrisons and churches. In the wake of the American Revolution, it was the siren call for frontiersmen and land-hungry farmers out of British America. By teh mid-1800s, it was the gateway to the West for thousands of migrants headed for the gold mines of California, for the unspoiled new lands of Oregon, and for the trade riches offered by the Santa Fe Trail. Hundreds of thousands passed through or stayed a while, leaving traces for descendants who seek their records. This guide is intended to familiarize researchers with the state’s original and published resources, as well as the repositories that preserve this material.”

Beginning in 1987, the National Genealogical Society began publishing a series of state guides in the organization’s magazine, the Quarterly. These guides were later issued as special publications. The latest version of the series contains revised guides, plus additional states not included in the previous releases. NGS Research in the States Series: Missouri was written by Pamela Boyer Porter and Ann Carter Fleming.

In the following words of the authors, the real purpose of this book is uncovered:

“People of every hue, creed, occupation, and origin left their tracks on Missouri’s hills, plains, and prairies. Their footprints are found throughout the state’s archives, libraries, and government offices. To study Missouri families, however, one must know the history of the state; and one must understand its records and their access”

This guide, as are all the state series guides, provides the researcher with the understanding of available resources and how to access these repositories.

Both authors are native Missourians with strong backgrounds in research, writing, and lecturing. Both are certified Genealogists and Certified Genealogical Lecturers. Pam has served on the boards of both the Federation of Genealogical Societies and the Missouri State Genealogical Association. Ann is a trustee of the Board for Certification of Genealogists and is the course coordinator at the Institute of Genealogy and Historical Research, and has served on many other boards in the past.

 

Table of Contents

History and Settlement

Archives, Libraries, and Societies

  • Missouri State Archives
  • State Historical Society of Missouri
  • Western Historical Manuscript Collection
  • National Archives and Records Administration
    • National Archives–Central Plains Region
    • National Civilian Personnel Record Center
    • National Military Personnel Record Center
  • Missouri Historical Society
  • Other Libraries
  • Other Societies

Major Resources

  • Aids to Research
  • Atlases, Gazetteers, and Maps
  • Biographical Guides
  • Cemetery Records
  • Censuses and Census Substitutes
    • Colonial Censuses
    • Federal Censuses
    • State Censuses
    • Miscellaneous Censuses
  • City and County Directories
  • City-Level Research
  • Court Records
    • County-Level Courts
    • District and State-Level Courts
    • Federal Courts
  • Ethnic Records
    • African Americans
    • Native Americans
  • Land Records
    • Colonial Grants
    • U.S. Land Distribution
    • State-Level Land Records
    • County-Level Land Records
  • Military Records
    • Militia and National Guard Service
    • War of 1812
    • Indian War
    • Mormon War
    • Iowa or Honey War
    • Mexican War
    • Civil War
    • Civil War (Postwar Activities)
    • Spanish-American War
    • World War I
    • Other Military Actions
    • Military Records: Benefits
  • Naturalization Records
  • Newspapers
  • Religious Records
  • State Records
  • Tax Records
  • Vital Records
    • Adoption Records
    • Birth and Death Records
    • Marriage and Divorce Records
    • Miscellaneous “Vital Records”
  • Voter Registration
  • Women of Missouri
  • Conclusion

 

These guides are an excellent resource for state by state research. Available guides, including NGS Research in the States Series: Missouri are available from Family Roots Publishing; Price: $15.79.

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Historica-Dominion Institute to be Renamed Historica Canada

The following excerpt is from the historica-dominion.ca website:
Institut-Historica-Dominion-Institute

JULY 2, 2013: Stephen Smith, Chairman of the Board of The Historica-Dominion Institute, announced today that effective September 3, 2013, the organization will change its name to Historica Canada.

TORONTO (July 2, 2013) – Stephen Smith, Chairman of the Board of The Historica-Dominion Institute, announced today that effective September 3, 2013, the organization will change its name to Historica Canada.

The new bilingual name will clearly and concisely reflect our focus on building awareness of our history and the values of Canadian citizenship,” said Mr. Smith. ‘These continuing priorities have formed our mandate since our two founding organizations, The Historica Foundation of Canada and The Dominion Institute, merged in 2009, and will continue to do so.”

Based in Toronto with activities across the country, the organization’s programs include the making of the popular Heritage Minutes – 60-second vignettes on Canadian History; The Memory Project, which provides audio, video and live platforms for the country’s war veterans to relate their experiences; Passages to Canada, which gives newcomers to Canada a similar platform; the annual Aboriginal Writing and Arts Challenge; and Encounters with Canada, which brings more than 3,000 high school students from across Canada into Ottawa each year for a week of learning about their country. The organization is also presently building new interactive enhancements to its widely-used Canadian Encyclopedia, with those features slated to be unveiled this fall.

The new name will not take formal effect until the fall in order to allow for legal and logistical steps to be completed. In the run-up to the change and beyond, the present phone numbers, e-mail addresses, website and overall contact points for the organization will remain the same.

Historica Canada, formerly The Historica-Dominion Institute, is the largest independent organization dedicated to history and citizenship in Canada…

Read the full article at the website.

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Kentucky Historical Society Announces Partnership with the Smithsonian Institution

The following teaser is from the July 1, 2013 edition of bizjournals.com:
I Love KY History

The Kentucky Historical Society has struck a new partnership with the Smithsonian Institution.

An affiliation with the Smithsonian will provide KHS with such opportunities as access to artifacts and traveling exhibitions. Smithsonian collections includes more than 136 million objects.

Read the full article.

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FamilySearch Adds More Than 50.1 Million Images from Belgium, BillionGraves, Brazil, England, Mexico, New Zealand, Spain, & the USA

The following is from FamilySearch July 3, 2013:
FamilySearch.org
FamilySearch has recently added more than 50.1 million images from Belgium, BillionGraves, Brazil, China, Czech Republic, England, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, Portugal, Spain, and the United States. Notable collection updates include the 10,242,324 images from the Belgium Civil Registration collections between 1582-1912, the 6,993,483 index records and images from the Spain Municipal Records collections between 1251-1966, and the 29,532,624 index records from the new United States, Public Records Index collection. See the table below for the full list of updates. Search these diverse collections and more than 3.5 billion other records for free at FamilySearch.org.

Searchable historic records are made available on FamilySearch.org through the help of thousands of volunteers from around the world. These volunteers transcribe (index) information from digital copies of handwritten records to make them easily searchable online. More volunteers are needed (particularly those who can read foreign languages) to keep pace with the large number of digital images being published online at FamilySearch.org. Learn more about volunteering to help provide free access to the world’s historic genealogical records online at FamilySearch.org.

FamilySearch is the largest genealogy organization in the world. FamilySearch is a nonprofit, volunteer-driven organization sponsored by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Millions of people use FamilySearch records, resources, and services to learn more about their family history. To help in this great pursuit, FamilySearch and its predecessors have been actively gathering, preserving, and sharing genealogical records worldwide for over 100 years. Patrons may access FamilySearch services and resources for free at FamilySearch.org or through more than 4,600 family history centers in 132 countries, including the main Family History Library in Salt Lake City, Utah.

Collection – Indexed Records – Digital Images – Comments

Belgium, Antwerp, Civil Registration, 1609-1909 – 0 – 3,166,714 – New browsable image collection.
Belgium, Brabant, Civil Registration, 1582-1912 – 0 – 3,571,907 – New browsable image collection.
Belgium, Hainaut, Civil Registration, 1600-1911 – 0 – 3,217,821 – New browsable image collection.
Belgium, Liège, Civil Registration, 1621-1910 – 0 – 57,107 – Added images to an existing collection.
Belgium, Luxembourg, Civil Registration, 1608-1912 – 0 – 215,728 – Added images to an existing collection.
Belgium, Namur, Civil Registration, 1800-1912 – 0 – 13,047 – New browsable image collection.
BillionGraves Index – 335,005 – 335,005 – Added index records and images to an existing collection.
Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, Immigration Cards, 1900-1965 – 367,422 – 672,673 – Added index records and images to an existing collection.
China, Collection of Genealogies, 1239-2011 – 0 – 300,435 – Added images to an existing collection.
Czech Republic, Censuses, 1843-1921 – 0 – 158,892 – Added images to an existing collection.
Czech Republic, Civil Registers, 1874-1937 – 0 – 92,612 – Added images to an existing collection.
Czech Republic, Land Records, 1450-1889 – 0 – 31,100 – Added images to an existing collection.
England, Sussex, Parish Registers, 1538-1910 – 408,898 – 29,322 – New index records and images collection.
Mexico, San Luis Potosí, Miscellaneous Records, 1570-1842 – 0 – 153,873 – Added images to an existing collection.
New Zealand, Central Otago, Cemetery Gravestones, 1861-2009 – 12,739 – 6,615 – New index records and images collection.
Peru, Junín, Civil Registration, 1890-2005 – 0 – 91,151 – Added images to an existing collection.
Portugal, Évora, Catholic Church Records, 1533-1912 – 0 – 266,854 – Added images to an existing collection.
Spain, Province of Alicante, Municipal Records, 1762-1921 – 831,339 – 0 – Added index records to an existing collection.
Spain, Province of Almería, Municipal Records, 1587-1900 – 202,522 – 0 – Added index records to an existing collection.
Spain, Province of Barcelona, Municipal Records, 1583-1936 – 459,681 – 0 – Added index records to an existing collection.
Spain, Province of Cádiz, Municipal Records, 1784-1931 – 215,786 – 0 – Added index records to an existing collection.
Spain, Province of Huelva, Municipal Records, 1760-1950 – 414,687 – 0 – Added index records to an existing collection.
Spain, Province of Jaén, Municipal Records, 1531-1922 – 684,802 – 0 – Added index records to an existing collection.
Spain, Province of La Coruña, Municipal Records, 1648-1941 – 552,202 – 0 – Added index records to an existing collection.
Spain, Province of León, Municipal Records, 1642-1897 – 14,815 – 0 – Added index records to an existing collection.
Spain, Province of Lugo, Municipal Records, 1703-1950 – 106,568 – 12 – Added index records and images to an existing collection.
Spain, Province of Murcia, Municipal Records, 1500-1924 – 321,732 – 0 – Added index records to an existing collection.
Spain, Province of Segovia, Municipal Records, 1718-1920 – 407,030 – 0 – Added index records to an existing collection.
Spain, Province of Sevilla, Municipal Records, 1293-1966 – 1,159,401 – 288 – Added index records and images to an existing collection.
Spain, Province of Valencia, Miscellaneous Records, 1251-1950 – 1,622,618 – 0 – Added index records to an existing collection.
U.S., Idaho, County Naturalizations, 1861-1974 – 0 – 32,807 – New browsable image collection.
U.S., Illinois, Lee County Records, 1830-1954 – 0 – 55,803 – Added images to an existing collection.
U.S., Ohio, Cleveland, Trinity Lutheran Church Records, 1853-2013 – 0 – 1,702 – New browsable image collection.
United States, Public Records Index – 29,532,624 – 0 – New indexed records collection.

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A Genealogist’s Historical Timeline for Arkansas, 1539 – 1836

The following Historical Timeline for Arkansas, 1539 – 1836 is from William Dollarhide’s new book, Arkansas Name Lists, 1686 – 2005, with a selection of National Name Lists, 1600s – Present:
Arkansas Name Lists
For genealogical research in Arkansas, the following timeline of events should help any genealogist understand the area with an historical and genealogical point of view:

1539-1542. Spaniard Hernando DeSoto was a famous Conquistador, having spent time as a loyal captain under Francisco Pizarro in the conquest of Peru in 1532. He had returned to Spain a hero in 1534 where he was granted an enormous share of the treasure of the Inca conquest. He requested from King Charles I the governorship of Guatemala, and to lead an expedition for the “discovery of the South Sea.” But Charles gave him the Governorship of Cuba instead.
On his own in 1539, DeSoto assembled and financed a party of some 620 men, 500 beef cattle, 250 horses and 200 pigs. He had a mandate from Charles I to find gold, find the Pacific Ocean, and find a direct passage to China. He embarked from Havana with a total of nine ships, and landed on Florida’s West Coast. The DeSoto party traveled on land past Tampa Bay and then further north to present-day Georgia. DeSoto and his party were the first Europeans to travel inland into present-day Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, Tennessee, Alabama, Mississippi, and Arkansas.
The Indian fighting techniques DeSoto had learned against the Inca of Peru did not work well against the Creeks of present Georgia and Alabama. The Creeks had no fear of DeSoto’s horses, killed them at will, and after a couple of battles, DeSoto had lost nearly half of his men, and over half of his horses. He determined to press on anyway, and headed his party towards the Mississippi River. At a point near present-day Memphis, he took over a month building rafts before finally getting across the river. In doing so, he became the first European to cross the Mississippi River.
He seemed to like Arkansas, because he meandered within the land of the Osage and Quapaw for nearly a year. At one point, he had floated down the Mississippi as far south as the mouth of the Arkansas River. To gain dominance over the Quapaw Indians, DeSoto had tried to convince them that he was immortal, but when he died from fever in 1542, his men wrapped his body in blankets filled with sand and tossed him unceremoniously into the Mississippi to prevent his discovery. Today, there are at least three towns along the Mississippi River that claim to be the burial site of Hernando DeSoto.
The remaining expedition leaders decided to head for Texas, then down to Mexico City. But it was so dry in Texas, and the group was still well over 350 men in size, it was not possible to live off the land. So the party headed back to the Mississippi River. They spent another Winter there and melted down everything they had made of iron to make enough nails to build seven sailing vessels. After two more months at sea, the party arrived in the Spanish frontier town of Panuco. From there, many of the party continued on to Mexico City.
Hernando DeSoto’s legacy in Arkansas lives on with the domestic pigs he intentionally released to run wild there. Their descendants are now called Razorbacks.

1673. Floating down river from the Great Lakes, French Jesuit Father Jacques Marquette and trader Louis Juliet reached the Quapaw villages of Arkansae and Kappa.

1682. French explorer René-Robert Cavelier (Sieur de la Salle) erected a cross near the confluence of the Mississippi River and the Gulf of Mexico, after floating down rivers from the Great Lakes area. He claimed the entire Mississippi Basin for Louis XIV of France, for whom Louisiana was named. All of the rivers and streams flowing into the Mississippi were part of the Mississippi Basin and included in the Louisiana claim.

1686 Arkansas Post. A son of an expatriated Italian, French soldier/trader Henri DeTonti founded Arkansas Post, near the point where the Arkansas River joins the Mississippi. Arkansas Post was the first white settlement in the Lower Mississippi River Valley. DeTonti, who accompanied LaSalle in several explorations of the Mississippi Valley, was to later build a fort on the Yazoo River, now Mississippi, and was known to have explored Texas, all before 1700.

1700. French Missionaries arrived in the Osage and Quapaw villages of present-day Arkansas to convert the natives to Catholicism.

1721-1762 French Louisiana. By 1721, several hundred French colonists abandoned Arkansas Post. Most returned to France, but some relocated in the French Caribbean Islands. The trading fort at Arkansas Post remained and continued to be the focal point for trade with the Quapaw and Osage Indians in the region. As a failed farming community, Arkansas Post was typical of the French efforts to colonize Louisiana. They were much more interested in trading for furs with the Indians. For the next 40 years after the Arkansas Post experiment, the French presence in the Mississippi Basin consisted mainly of single French trappers and traders paddling their canoes from one trading post to the next. The French established military forts at strategic locations, mainly as a means of protecting the trappers during their contacts with the Indians. In comparison with the French colonies, by 1762 the British colonies had constructed over 2,500 miles of improved wagon roads on the Atlantic Coast, between Boston and Charles Town. The British colonies had an economy based on town tradesmen surrounded by small farms, with the exchange of goods and produce up and down the coast. During this same period, the French had built one road that was 12 miles long, and that was only to provide portage between rivers. In the Mississippi Basin, there were very few French farming communities, and there was very little exchanging of goods or produce, except for the trapping and trading of furs.

1762. The French secretly ceded Louisiana to Spain. The cession was formalized a year later at the Treaty of Paris ending the French and Indian War.

1763. The Seven Years War (in Europe) and the French and Indian War (in America) ended with the 1763 Treaty of Paris. France lost virtually all of its North American claims, first the western side of the Mississippi was lost to Spain, and the eastern side of the Mississippi was lost to Britain. The British also gained Florida and Quebec from the French.

1783 United States of America. The treaty of Paris of 1783 first recognized the United States as an independent nation. Its borders were described generally from the Atlantic Ocean to the Mississippi River, and from Maine to Georgia.

1802 Louisiana. In Europe, Napoleon defeated the Spanish in battle and gained title to Louisiana again, after trading them a couple of duchies in Italy. However, Napoleon found that his troops in the Caribbean were under siege and unable to provide much help in establishing a French government in Louisiana. About a year later, when a couple of American emissaries showed up trying to buy New Orleans from him, Napoleon decided to unload the entire tract to the Americans (to help finance a trip to Russia he had in mind).

1803 Louisiana. Surprised and delighted that Napoleon was willing to sell the entire tract called Louisiana, President Thomas Jefferson urged Congress to vote in favor, and the U.S. purchased the huge tract from France, doubling the size of the United States. The purchase of Louisiana immediately created a dispute about ownership of lands east of the Mississippi River, since the legal description of the Louisiana Purchase was the “drainage of the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers.” The Spanish did not agree that it included lands east of the Mississippi and maintained their claim to West Florida.

1804 Louisiana District and Orleans Territory. Congress divided the Louisiana Purchase into two jurisdictions: Louisiana District and Orleans Territory. The latter had north and south bounds the same as the
present state of Louisiana, but did not include land east of the Mississippi River, and its northwestern corner extended on an indefinite line west into Spanish Texas. For a year, Louisiana District was attached to Indiana Territory for judicial administration, but became Louisiana Territory with its own Governor in 1805.

1805. Arkansas settlements were part of Louisiana Territory contained within New Madrid and Arkansas counties.

1806-1807. The Pike Expedition was a military effort authorized by the U.S. government to explore
the south and west of the recent Louisiana Purchase. In progress at the same time as the more famous Lewis & Clark expedition, the Pike Expedition was led by Captain Zebulon Pike, Jr., and managed by General James Wilkinson, the first Governor of Louisiana Territory (later called Missouri Territory). From documents released by Mexico many years after the death of James Wilkinson, there are now many historians who believe Wilkinson really sent Pike out to spy on the Spanish along the southern boundary of the original Louisiana Purchase area, and that Wilkinson was a double agent, paid by the Spanish Governor in Nuevo Mexico, as well as the U.S. government. If so, it might explain why early in Pike’s expedition, his entire party was arrested by Spanish soldiers in present Southern Colorado near the Arkansas River. These were the same soldiers who had been sent north from Santa Fe to arrest the Lewis & Clark party, but were unable to find them. Pike and his party were taken to Santa Fe, Nuevo Mexico, where they were treated very well. It was never clear how the Spanish knew so much about the Lewis & Clark expedition or the Pike expedition. But after just a couple of weeks, Pike and his party were escorted back to the Arkansas River and allowed to continue their explorations. The expedition continued into the Rocky Mountains, documented the discovery of Pikes Peak, and spent time trying to find the head waters of the Red and Arkansas Rivers. Captain Zebulon Pike’s party was credited as the first Americans to follow what would become known as the Santa Fe Trail. In 1810, Captain Pike’s published book of his expedition included the first English description of the Spanish culture in North America, and was a best seller in America and Europe.

1806 Louisiana–Spanish Mexico Line. The Louisiana Purchase caused a border dispute between the U.S. and Spain over the Louisiana-Mexico boundary. Spain claimed east to the Red River; the U.S. claimed west to the Sabine River. They made a compromise in 1806 with the so-called Neutral Ground, where neither exercised jurisdiction. From 1806 to 1819, the Neutral Ground became a haven for outlaws, fugitives and pirates. (The French pirate, Jean Lafitte, was a frequent visitor to the Neutral Ground, in and around the Lake Charles and Calcasieu regions). Yet, in the 1810 census for Orleans Territory, a few thousand American settlers were actually enumerated within the Neutral Ground, many of whom could be traced back to the Arkansas settlements of Louisiana Territory.

1810 Federal Census was the first federal census taken in Louisiana Territory and Orleans Territory, but only the manuscripts from Orleans survive.

1812 (April). Orleans Territory became the state of Louisiana.

1812 (June). Louisiana Territory was renamed Missouri Territory. As early as 1805 the area was often referred to as “Upper Louisiana,” but with the statehood of Louisiana, the confusion between the two had to be resolved. But, for two months, the U.S. had a Territory of Louisiana and a State of Louisiana at the same time.

1817. Fort Smith was established on the Arkansas River (near the present Oklahoma state line). Fort Smith’s most famous resident was Judge Isaac Parker, who served as US District Judge from 1875-1896. He was nicknamed the “Hanging Judge” because in his first term after assuming his post he tried eighteen people for murder, convicted fifteen of them, sentenced eight of those to die, and hanged six of them in one day.

1818. The Quapaw Indians ceded their lands between the Arkansas and Red Rivers, opening the area to white settlement.

1819 (February). The Adams-Onis Treaty between the U.S. and Spain set part of the international boundary between the U.S. and Spanish Mexico as the line of the Sabine River north to a point of intersection with Latitude 32o, then due north to the Red River. This is the modern boundary between Louisiana and Texas.

1819 (July). Arkansas Territory was created by Congress, taken from Missouri Territory. The territorial capital was at Arkansas Post. The area included all of present-day Arkansas and most of Oklahoma. Arkansas Territory misinterpreted the new boundary with Spanish Mexico, believing their southern line with Louisiana extended west on the same latitude. The confusion came from the language of the treaty with Spain, which described the lay of the Sabine River without maps, and the only maps available to the Arkansas territorial legislators had the Sabine River incorrectly located. A new survey of the area was not done until 1828, and during that time Arkansas Territory created counties that extended into Spanish Mexico.

1820 (April). Old Miller County, Arkansas Territory was created in an area partly outside of the legal jurisdiction of Arkansas Territory, due to a misunderstanding of the 1819 Treaty with Spain. Old Miller County straddled the Red River with its northern portion well into present-day Oklahoma, an area legally part of Arkansas Territory; and its southern portion well into present-day Texas, which was still part of Spanish Mexico.

1820 (June). Federal Census was taken in Arkansas Territory, but the original manuscripts were lost.

1821. The Arkansas territorial capital was moved from Arkansas Post to Little Rock.

1821 (August). The southeastern portion of Missouri Territory became the State of Missouri. The large remaining area of Missouri Territory was mostly uninhabited and Congress labeled the area as “Unorganized Territory.”

1821 (September). Mexico gained independence from Spain. The part of Old Miller County, Arkansas Territory, south of the Red River was now in Mexico.

1824. The Quapaw Indians were forced to cede their lands south of the Arkansas River, leaving them with just the reservation lands in the area of present-day Lincoln, Jefferson, and Cleveland counties, Arkansas.

1825-1828. In 1825, a small area north of the Red River was separated from Arkansas Territory. In 1828, a larger area of Arkansas Territory was set aside by Congress as an “Indian Reserve,” reducing Arkansas Territory to its present size and shape. The separated area was called the “Indian Territory” by everyone, but that name did not become official until it was mentioned in new treaty documents with the five civilized tribes after the Civil War.

1828. About half of Old Miller County, Arkansas Territory lay north of the Red River, and was impacted dramatically by the creation of the Indian Territory. The inhabitants of Miller County north of the Red River were forced to move, and it could be the only time in U.S. history that whites were forced to leave their homes to make room for the Indians. (It was usually the other way around). Meanwhile, people living in the part of old Miller County south of the Red River had not yet learned that they were actually living in Mexico.

1830 Federal Census was taken in Arkansas Territory, and the manuscripts survive for all twenty-three counties, including old Miller County, now entirely outside of the U.S. in Mexico’s Province of Texas.

1836 (March). The Republic of Texas gained its independence from Mexico, and old Miller County tried in vain to reassert its position as an Arkansas county. When Texas created its Red River County in 1836, old Miller County effectively ceased to exist. Named to honor Arkansas Territory’s first Governor, James Miller, another Miller County, Arkansas was created in 1874, with the original county seat located at Texarkana, Arkansas.

1836 (June 15th). Arkansas became the 25th state.

Excerpted from William Dollarhide’s Arkansas Name Lists, 1686 – 2005, with a selection of National Name Lists, 1600s – Present:

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Slave Ancestral Research: It’s Something Else

hbf0200Slave Ancestral Research: It’s Something Else, is the documented research for author Mary L. Jackson Fears’ 7th-generation slave grandmother, Luveser McCrary. This search, this story, begins with finding Fears’ great-grandmother Emma’s brother, Peter, in the 1900 Taylor County Census. This is not a how-to book. In the author’s own words, “The are other publications…which serve that purpose. My purpose is to narrate the details of my roots search in a manner to inspire others.

Fears’ search is a fourteen year labor with its own rewards. These are the rewards she hopes to inspire in others searching their own slave ancestors. Oswals Perry Bronson, Sr., Ph.D., President, Bethune-Cookman College had this to say about Mary Jackson Fears and this book:

“Her work is informational and inspirational, systematic and persuasive, factual and enlightening, logical and deeply personal. The entire Bethune-Cookman College family is immeasurably proud and grateful to this alumna for illuminating the pages of history with her persistence and a publication that will reach into endless eternity as a role model.”

Throughout here research, Fears literally worked through thousands of documents. Often the author was forced to examine the family history of the slave owners in order to find connections to records and her family. Step by step Mary leads the reader through her research. Step by step the reader finds comfort knowing, despite the needed effort, there may be success in the end. The book is definitely a learn by example experience.

 

Contents

List of Charts

List of Illustrations

Foreword

Acknowledgements

Introduction

List of Abbreviations

1. My Discovery of Grandpa Simon and Grandma Tildy McCants

2. Slave Ancestral Research

3. Taylor County Court Records

4. A Discovery

5. Are These My Folks: Abram, Emily, and Mary on Catharine Daniel’s Inventory and Sale of Perishable Property?

6. He’s the One, John McCrary

7. Talbot County Returns

8. A Light at the End of the Tunnel

Beneath Taylor County Sod

On to Talbot county

On to Atlanta and the Georgia Archives

A Rude Awakening

Questions, Questions, Questions

9. From Pillar to Post

10. Baldwind County Probate Records

Record Group No. 1 Barley McCrary

Jenny Poindexter

“Oh Lord, How Come We Here?”

Records Group No. 2 John McCrary, Sr.

Warren County Records

Record Group No. 3 Jonathan McCrary

Record Group No. 4 Isaac McCrary

Record Group No. 5 Robert McCrary

Record Group No. 6 William McCrary

Hiring Day

Matthew McCrary

Record Group No. 7 John McCrary (d.1854)

11. A Name, A Name, What Name Shall I Take?

12. Where to Go From Here

July 7, 1993, A Day Remembered

13. The Day I Found My Folks

14. John McCarary, 1789-1854, Estate Records

The Division and Whereabouts of “Old Visues”

15. Revelations from Revolutionary War Records

16. The Transfer Chart

17. “All Things Work Together For Good”

The Metamorphosis of a Name

18. Missing Links, Divine Guidance and John McCrary

19. So Little to Go On, Reflections

20. The Descendants of Luveser McCrary

Notes

Glossary

Selected Bibliography

Index

About the Author

 

Slave Ancestral Research: It’s Something Else is available at Family Root Publishing; Price: $36.26.

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New Jersey Senate Passes Adoptee’s Rights Bill

It’s been a few days since the New Jersey Senate passed this biil, but I missed it – so I’m posting this blog now. Better late than never…

The following excerpt is from the June 21, 2013 edition of njtoday.net:

TRENTON – The state Senate approve a bill sponsored by Senator Joseph F. Vitale and Majority Leader Loretta Weinberg which would give adoptees in New Jersey access to their medical history and birth records on Thursday.

“Knowing who you are and where you came from is a right that all people deserve,” said Vitale, D-Middlesex. “But without access to original birth certificates, many adoptees are left in the dark regarding their family medical, cultural and social history. Without this information, adoptees are often put at a disadvantage when it comes to making informed health decisions. Providing these men and women with access to this vital information by no means compromises the privacy of the birth parent, but instead provides adoptees with valuable insight into their family history.”

The bill, S-2814, would allow for an adopted person over the age of 18, their direct descendant, sibling or spouse, an adoptive parent or guardian, or a state or federal agency to access an uncertified, long-form copy of the adoptee’s original birth certificate through the New Jersey State Registrar. Additionally, the adoptive person would receive any available information regarding contact preferences with their biological parent and family history information.

The bill was approved by the Senate with a vote of 30-8. It must now head to the General Assembly for further consideration.

Read the full article.

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