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The Jean (John) Gaston Genealogy CD-ROM

Jean (John) Gaston CD-ROM
A few days ago, Betty Carson sent me a copy of a CD-ROM about Jean (John) Gaston, and his descendants. Jean (John) was born about 1600 in France. He was a Huguenot. William Gaston (born 1642), along with his brothers, John and Alexander, went to County Antrim in Northern Ireland between 1662 and 1668. He is referred to by genealogists “as the first Irish William Gaston” to distinguish him from brother John’s son William and others. He was the father of the Charleston, SC Gastons who emigrated in the 1700’s to 1770’s from County Antrim, Ireland.

William Gaston (born 1680) in Carenleah, Cloughwater, County Antrim, Ireland was the son of John Gaston (born 1645). He and his brothers, John, Hugh, Joseph, and Alexander arrived in America about 1720 through the Port of Perth Amboy and settled in New Jersey. He married Olivet Lemon, also known as Mary Lemmon, b. 1688 in Scotland, d. 1752.

Their son, John Gaston, also known as Justice John Gaston, was born April 4, 1703 in Ireland, and died in 1782 in South Carolina. He is buried in Burnt Meeting House Cemetery, Wylie’s Mill, Chester County, SC. He settled and resided in Fishing Creek, Chester County, SC in 1751/52. He immigrated in 1749 to Pennsylvania and made his occupation as a farmer, surveyor (and Justice while in South Carolina). His nine sons served as soldiers in the American Revolution as four of them lost their lives in that war.

Three brothers, Joseph, Robert, and Matthew Gaston, said to be the great-grandsons of the first Irish William Gaston, Emigrated to South Carolina, with their sister, Jane Gaston Walker, leaving a fourth brother, Alexander, in Ireland. Of these, Joseph Gaston married Martha Gaston, daughter of Justice John (above). It is from this line that the Town of Gaston, South Carolina is named.

This CD-ROM, titled “Jean (John) Gaston – Born ca 1600 in France,” contains approximately 958 pages with many pictures, land records, and files submitted by various researchers. Ms. Carson has added much linage to the main body of the Gaston Family file that is full indexed. Also included is a fictional novel, “Polly of the Pines,” featuring Justice John Gaston of Revolutionary fame. Use your Adobe reader to access the files.

The CD-ROM is available from Betty J Carson, 368 Sease Hill Road, Lexington, SC 29073-8977. She may also be contacted at: . Cost is $35 postage paid. If the purchaser orders two copies, the CD is $30 each – postage paid.

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Vermont Needed Swedes Who Could Withstand the Rigors of Vermont Rural Living

The following teaser is from an interesting article about a little-known program to get Swedes to immigrate to Vermont.

EAST DUMMERSTON, VT. — Until recently, Earl Cavanagh didn’t know that many of his ancestors came to Vermont from Sweden as part of a short-lived state-run program to help repopulate the abandoned hill farms with people accustomed to the rigors of living and working in a challenging rural environment.

Cavanagh learned how his Swedish ancestors came to Vermont from Lyndon State College history professor Paul Searls, who is researching a book on the topic….

Searls stumbled onto the Swedish immigration project while writing another book, and he saw newspaper articles from across the country on the Swedish immigration program. Now, he’s writing a book on the program.

Read the full article.

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Brightsolid to Take Over PERSI Publication

Michael Clegg, associate director at the Allen County Public Library, points out a few genealogical periodicals.
This may be common news, but I certainly hadn’t heard it before. Brightsolid – the British company behind is taking over the publication of PERSI. In fact, according to Michael Clegg and Jeff Krull, Brightsolid plans to go ahead and jump through the hoops allowing this invaluable periodical index to link to the actual image of the article itself – somthing that has been talked about for years, but never happened.

I found the following in an article about PERSI, published in the July 14, 2013 edition of

“…Eventually, the deal with Ancestry ended, and the library contracted with Heritage Quest. Now that relationship has ended and ACPL is working with Brightsolid, an online publishing firm in the United Kingdom. Not only does the contract keep the index going, but Brightsolid hopes to do something no American firm has been able to do: Link the index to the full text of the article.

Because of copyright laws, providing the article would require getting permission from every publisher, difficult at best. But Clegg said Brightsolid has been able to do it in the United Kingdom and believes it can use its model to do so here. The best part, Krull said, is that Brightsolid does all the work.”

Read the full article from where I pulled the above quote. It gives a history of PERSI – one of the most valuable of all genealogical resources.

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Genealogy Roadshow to Tape in Austin, TX; Detroit, MI; Nashville, TN; and San Francisco, CA

According to am AP article in the, PBS is filming at a home today in the historic Indian Village of Detroit, Michigan.

The new PBS series will begin broadcast this fall, and is said to combine science with history to tell American family stories. Taping will be done in Austin, Texas; Detroit, Michigan; Nashville, Tennessee; and San Francisco, California.

The Genealogy Roadshow will air Mondays, September 23-October 14, 9:00-10:00 p.m. ET.

Click here to read the AP article.

Click here to read the PDS announcement made at Arlington, VA May 9, 2013.

Leave a Comment – Search 1,099,175 Newspapers From 1,034 Newspaper Titles is a website with a search engine that searches a number of newspaper collections. According to the website, 1,099,175 Newspapers are searched from 1,034 Newspaper Titles.

Quite a number of newspapers are made available in searchable digital format with a software called Veridan. Veridian makes it easy to search, view and interact with digitized newspaper collections on the internet. It was designed specifically to organize large digitized newspaper collections and make them easily accessible to anyone online. Most of the source collections that are searchable from are Veridian-based collections. uses the same search functionality built for Veridian software, so search results are fast, accurate, and relevant. is hosted entirely “in the cloud”, as are many Veridian-based collections.

The collections are as follows:


  • Trove (National Library of Australia)

New Zealand

  • Papers Past (National Library of New Zealand)
  • Upper Hutt City Library


  • Singapore National Library Board

United States

  • Boston College
  • California Digital Newspaper Collection (UC Riverside)
  • Cambridge Public Library, Massachussets
  • Chronicling America (US Library of Congress)
  • Door County Library
  • Kent State University
  • University of Richmond
  • University of California, San Francisco
  • University of Illinois
  • University of Missouri School of Journalism (Missouri Digital Heritage)

CLICK HERE to see a list of titles by collection (Click on the collection of interest).

I did a search across all the collections and got 313 results for a search on the surname “Meitzler.” All 131 hits came from newspapers within the United States – specifically 122 results from the Chronicling America (US Library of Congress) collection and 9 results from the University of Illinois collection. Neither of these collections have much of anything on my Metizler family, as the papers represented are not from the areas of the country where my Meitzlers lived. However, I certainly found some fascinating stuff, including an article from the Washington Times (July 08, 1908, Last Edition, Page 8, Image 8), about one Melvie Meitzler, who tried to kill herself, claiming abuse by her husband. Click on the illustration to see the article.

Melvie Meitzler

Search for your family with

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Out-of-Style: A Modern Perspective on How, Why, and When Vintage Fashions Evolved

bks01I have reviewed numerous books claiming a value to more than just Genealogists, but to others, like historians, scientist, computer users, and other cultural and professional cross centers. Out-of-Style: A Modern Perspective on How, Why, and When Vintage Fashions Evolved is the first book I have found to declare its value to Genealogists, along with groups possessing, perhaps, fewer similarities like Costume Designers, Theatre Companies, Social Historians, Vintage Collectors, and Fashionistsas. A book like this is of obvious profit to the Genealogist, knowledge of fashion can help date old photographs. However, there is more to this book. There is a history as to where and how the garments your ancestors wore were designed and made.

Author, and Illustrator, Betty Kreisel Shubert is undoubtedly an expert on fashion. She knows what she was talking about and has every faith in her own abilities. According to her Author’s Notes, she got started on this book when she found herself walking with a women carrying photographs on her way to a genealogy club meeting. With what sounds like every confidence in her own ability she told the women, “show them to me, I can tell by the clothes about when the pictures were taken.” The very next month she was asked to speak at the club, and from that moment her career went from “Costume Designer to Fashion Historian, Author-Illustrator and Columnist for Ancestry Magazine.”

Despite her seeming self assurance, Shubert spared nothing in her efforts to assure every detail in this book was covered. She talks of having as many as 18 books open at once trying to verify and resolve questions.

One of my favorite elements of the book is the illustrations. There is a unique 40’s/50’s feel to this book; yet, it was published just this year.

From the 1900s, the author reveals carefully studied fashions, looking for and sharing the everyday wardrobe. These are the clothes your ancestors wore. As the book moves into the 20th century, the content becomes more personal. Especially, the discussion from the 30s on. Here you have more than just the author’s historical perspective. These are years in which the author was hard at work in her career. Her memories are a part of the discussion.


Table of Contents

Decade by Decade, Illustrations and Descriptive Text

Author’s Notes: How This Book Was Born


PART ONE – 19TH CENTURY 1830-1900

Chapter 1: Evolution In A Thimble 1830-1900

  • Illustrated Overview of the Primary Silhouettes of Each Decade 1830-1900
  • How Fashions Go Forward and Sometimes Back Again

Chapter 2: Why Hoop Skirts Were Born

  • Illustrated Chart to Identify the Shape of Hoop Skirts
  • How They Grew and Why They Died

Chapter 3: The Nine Sequential Phases Of The Rise And Fall And Rise (Again!) Of The Bustle

  • Illustrations – What Was Hiding Under Her Bustle?
  • Illustrated Chart of the Nine Phases
  • Style Clues of the Nine Phases Decade-by-Decade

Chapter 4: The Out-Of-Style Fashion Show

  • Invitation to an Out-of-Style Fashion Show
  • From Stylish to Obsolete in a Few Short Years

Chapter 5: When Proportions Change

  • Illustrations – Proportions Change at Their Most Extreme to a Completely Opposite Look
  • Beauty is in the Eye of the Beholder
  • Illustrations – Ever-Changing Erogenous Zones
  • The Pressure to Conform (Even if it Kills You!)
  • Illustrations – Foot Fetishes and Fashion Victims
  • The Pressure to Conform (Even if it Gives You Bunions!)
  • Arrested Development: Women Who Wait Too Long

Chapter 6: How Undergarments Affected The Posture And Shape Of Women’s Bodies

    • Illustrations – How the Changing Shape of Corsets Changed the Shape of Women and Their Clothes
    • All About Corsets … (How Fitting!)
    • Tight Lacing
    • Beauty is in the Eye of the Beholder
    • A Good Body Never Goes Out-of-Style
    • From Upholstered Bodies to “LOOK MA! … NO BRA!”
    • From Thick Stockings to Sheer Pantyhose in a Few Hundred Years
    • News Flash! … 600 Year Old Bra Found in Medieval Castle!

Chapter 7: Special Occasion Clothes

    • Illustrations – The Milestones of Reform Dress
    • The Milestones of Reform Dress and the Birth of the Bloomer Girl
    • Illustration – “We Got the Vote.”…1920
    • Illustrations – Wedding Veils and Hairstyles 1840s-1920s
    • Is She Wearing Her Own New Wedding Gown or Her Mother’s?
    • Illustrations – Maternity Clothes
    • The Comfort of Mother Hubbard Dresses While “Heavy with Child” (aka pregnant)
    • Illustrations – First Phase Mourning Dress
    • How to Recognize Mourning Clothes in a Vintage Photograph
    • The Four Stages of Mourning in 19th Century
    • Mourning in the 20th Century
    • Mourning Dress Is Dead!
    • The Colors of Mourning
    • Life (And Weddings) Must Go On
    • Mourning Jewelry
    • Illustration – From Baggy Bloomers to Sexy Bikinis 1850s-1950s
    • The Evolution of Bathing Suits

Chapter 8: Modern Improvements

    • Illustration –Vintage Camera…”See the Birdie”?
    • How Early Photography Froze Moments In Time, So that We Can Look at the Past
    • The First Sewing Machines
    • Illustration – What an Old Sew and Sew!
    • Illustration – Before Washing Machines and Dryers
    • Wash Day Over a Wash Tub
    • Illustration – Permanent Wave Machine
    • Women’s Hairstyle Notes – 19th to 20th Century

Chapter 9: How To Trace Your Ancestors… Literally!

  • Illustrated Instructions – How to Trace Your Ancestors
  • Style Clues That Result From Tracings

Chapter 10: Overview – Women’s Clothes 1840-1900

  • Style Clues for the Fashion Detective
  • Illustrations and Descriptive Text Decade-by-Decade
  • 1840-1850s
  • 1850-1860s
  • 1860-1870s
  • 1870-1880s
  • 1880-1890s
  • 1890-1900

Chapter 11: Overview – Men’s Clothes 1840-1900

  • Illustrations and Descriptive Text
  • 1840-1850s
  • 1850-1860s
  • 1860-1870s
  • 1870-1880s
  • 1880-1890s
  • 1890-1900

Chapter 12: Children’s Clothes 19th Century

  • Illustrations – From Pantaloons to Pants
  • When Little Boys Wore Dresses and Little Girls Wore Pantaloons
  • Illustration – Little Lord Fauntleroy and His Sister
  • Overview – The Small World of 19th Century Children

Chapter 13: Boys’ Clothes 1840-1900

  • Illustrations and Descriptive Text Decade-by-Decade
  • 1840-1850s
  • 1850-1860s
  • 1860-1870s
  • 1870-1880s
  • 1880-1890s
  • 1890-1900

Chapter 14: Girls’ Clothes 1840-1900

  • Illustrations and Descriptive Text Decade-by-Decade
  • 1840-1850s
  • 1850-1860s
  • 1860-1870s
  • 1870-1880s
  • 1880-1890s
  • 1890-1900

PART TWO – 20TH CENTURY 1900-1960

Chapter 15: Overview

  • Illustrations – Evolution of Hemlines in 100 years
  • Overview: The Bottom Line About Hemlines and The March to Modernity 1900-2000

Chapter 16: The First Two Decades 1900-1920

  • Illustrations 1900-1910 – Women’s Dress Variations
  • Turn of Century Silhouettes
  • Illustrations 1910-1920 – Women’s Dress Variations
  • Designer Paul Poiret and the Demise of The Hourglass Figure
  • How Tailor-Made Suits and Sears, Roebuck Catalogs Helped Unify America
  • Shirtwaist Blouses and Show Biz Gossip
  • The Color Alice-Blue and The Birth of Teddy Bears
  • Illustration – Child with Teddy Bear
  • Illustrations – Hats 1900-1914
  • The Changing Shapes of Millinery 1900-1920s
  • Illustrations – 1906-1920

Chapter 17: America On The Road

  • Illustrations – Auto Touring Clothes
  • Automobile Touring Clothes
  • Photograph: 1916 Elgin automobile
  • How WWI Jodphurs and Riding Britches Replaced Dusters and Hats

Chapter 18: Fashion Changes 1920-1960

    • Illustrations – Dress Variations 1920-1930
    • Who Put the Roar in the Roaring Twenties?
    • Illustrations – Hats and Hairstyles 1920-1930
    • Everything Changed in the 1930s
    • Illustrations – Dress Variations 1930s
    • Illustrations – Hats 1930s
    • Illustrations – Hats 1940s
    • Illustrations – Hairstyles 1940s
    • Illustrations – Dress Variations 1940s
    • Fashions of the Forties and Hollywood Boulevard
    • The “Frantic Forties” Party Invitation
    • Newspaper Article
    • Illustrations – Dress Variations 1950s
    • The “New Look” for Women (and the “New Look” for Movies and Las Vegas) in the 1950s
    • Illustrations – Hair Styles 1950s
    • Phenomenon of the Fifties Felt Skirt
    • Illustration of the “Poodle Skirt”
    • Fashion Photo 1934
    • The Changing Styles of Fashion Photography
    • The Origin of Fashion Shows
    • Chanel’s Influence on Clothes Designed for The Movies
    • Authenticity of Period Costumes Designed for The Movies

Chapter 19: The Psychology Of Clothes

  • The Blue Velveteen Suit
  • The Eccentric Dresser
  • What is “Good Taste”?
  • The Twenty-five-year-old Dress – When do “Old” clothes Become “Vintage” Clothes?

Chapter 20: Overview, Men’s Clothes – 20th Century

  • Style Clues for the Fashion Detective
  • Descriptive Text 1900-1960s
  • Zippers and the Prince of Wales
  • The “New Look” for Men … Early 1950s
  • Illustrations – Foreign Cars Invade America
  • Illustrations 1900-1910
  • Illustrations 1910-1920
  • Illustrations 1920-1930
  • Illustrations 1930-1940
  • Illustrations 1940-1950
  • Illustrations 1950-1960

Chapter 21: Overview, Boys’ And Girls’ Clothes

  • Long Denims and Short-Shorts
  • Sears, Roebuck Catalog Prices at Turn-of-the-Century Illustrations: Boys and Girls Together
  • Illustrations 1900-1910
  • Illustrations 1910-1920
  • Illustrations 1920-1930
  • Illustrations 1930-1940
  • Illustrations 1940-1950
  • Illustrations 1950-1960

Photo: Visit to the Costume Collection at the Victoria & Albert Museum in London
Betty’s Bio
Recommended Sources


Out-of-Style: A Modern Perspective on How, Why, and When Vintage Fashions Evolved is available at Family Roots Publishing; Price: $31.36

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Connecticut Name Lists 1600s-2001, with a selection of National Name Lists, 1600s – Present

fr0221What’s in the Connecticut edition?

Continuing our review for each of William Dollarhide’s name lists books, we detail the contents of Connecticut Name Lists 1600s-2001, with a selection of National Name Lists, 1600s – Present. Currently, there are nine new names lists books, and we are providing details on each.

In this book, names lists are detailed in the following database categories (with 351 total links for the state of Connecticut):

  • Colonial & Local Census Records
  • State and Town Court Records
  • Directories
  • State Militia Lists
  • State Veterans & Pensioners Lists
  • Tax Lists
  • Vital Records
  • Voter Lists

The contents of the Connecticut section of the guide include:

  • Connecticut Names Lists
  • Historical Timeline for Connecticut, 1524-1788
  • Introduction to Connecticut’s Colonial, Local & Statewide Name Lists
  • Bibliography of Connecticut Name Lists, 1600s-2001

Not only does this volume give a detailed bibliography of Name Lists available for the state, but links to websites, FHL book & microfilm numbers, archive references, maps, and key historical information make this volume invaluable to the researcher looking to extend their lines and fill in the family tree.

National Names Lists information included with every volume:

The National Names Lists have these categories (244 entries in all):

  • Federal Census Records
  • Immigration Lists
  • U.S. Military Lists
  • U.S. Veterans Records
  • U.S. Pension Records
  • National Vital Record

There are also a number of maps, including:

  • 1899 Alaska & Klondike Region
  • 1880-1940 Alaska Census Jurisdictions
  • 1763 British North America
  • 1784-1802 Western Land Cessions
  • 1790 United States
  • 1800 United States
  • 1810 United States
  • 1820 United States
  • 1830 United States
  • 1840 United States
  • 1850 United States
  • 1860 United States
  • 1870-1880 United States
  • 1890-1940 United States

This new series is bound to be a big hit with genealogists. Don’t forget, the introductory offer. If you order a print copy of the book you not only get 15% off, but you also will receive a FREE copy of the eBook version in  .PDF (Adobe Acrobat) format. The .PDF version is fully hyperlinked to take you quickly to each site, and can be viewed on any device or computer supporting Acrobat files, which is virtually every computer, laptop, tablet, and smart device on the market.

Order your copy of Connecticut Name Lists 1600s-2001, with a selection of National Name Lists, 1600s – Present while the deals are good, from Family Roots Publishing; Temporary Price: $16.11 for both the paper and electronic versions together. Or, get the eBook version alone for just $12.50.

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Flip-Pal mobile scanner Quick Notes

“Flip-Pal mobile scanner Quick Notes” is a 2-page (single sheet), laminated beginners guide for getting to know and using a Flip-Pal scanner.

Side 1 covers features. There is a list of features along with a photo of a Flip-Pal with all its part labeled for easy identification. These are followed by six key feature points:

  • Getting Started
  • Power
  • Date and Time
  • Batteries
  • SD Memory Card
  • Protect your Flip-Pal

The second side lists and demonstrates the scanning process, including how to approach making multiple scans to capture a single image

This guide is short and to the point. This Quick Note was created by Group National Publishing, LLC.

Get a copy of “Flip-Pal Mobile Scanner Quick Notes” from Family Roots Publishing; Price: $6.00

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So the Parish Council Knocked the Headstones Over…

The following teaser is from an article posted in the July 4, 2013 edition of
Councillor Philip Owen by the overturned headstones

Nuthall Parish, Nottinghamshite, UK: FAMILIES thought vandals had run amok in a cemetery when around 50 headstones were knocked over. Some were in tears when they saw the state of graves at Nuthall Cemetery in New Farm Lane.

But the “culprit” was Nuthall Parish Council. One shocked woman, who did not want to be named, was convinced vandals were to blame. Then she saw messages attached to each headstone explaining that the council had moved the headstones for health and safety reasons….

In 2000 a six-year-old boy from Harrogate was killed when a sandstone headstone fell over. And, in 2003, a nine-year-old boy collecting conkers in Burnley was crushed.

Read the full article.

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A Genealogist’s Historical Timeline for Colorado, 1541 – 2001

The following excerpt is from William Dollarhide’s new book, Colorado Name Lists, 1858 – 1998, with a selection of National Name Lists, 1600s – Present. Enjoy…
Colorado Name Lists
For genealogical research in Colorado, the following timeline of events should help any genealogist understand the area with an historical and genealogical point of view:

1541. After months of searching for the Seven Cities of Gold from the Gulf of California and the Grand Canyon, and as far north as present Colorado and Kansas, Spanish Conquistador Vasquez de Coronado finally gave up, and headed back to Mexico via the southeastern corner of present Colorado. The route Coronado followed would later be called the Santa Fe trail.

1682. French explorer René-Robert Cavelier (Sieur de la Salle erected a cross near the mouth of the Mississippi River, claiming the entire Mississippi Basin for France, and naming the region Louisiana after King Louis XIV. The mostly unexplored Louisiana claim included all of present Colorado east of the Rocky Mountains.

1720. After several Spanish expeditions noted the existence of the river, the name Rio Colorado first appeared on a Spanish map in 1720. Colorado is Spanish for “red,” the color of the river water for most of its length.

1763. The Treaty of Paris ending the French and Indian War in North America removed France from Louisiana. The area west of the Mississippi River became Spanish territory, the area east of the Mississippi River became British territory.

1765. Spanish explorer Juan Maria Rivera led an expedition into the San Juan and Sangre de Cristo Mountains in search of gold and silver.

1776. Fathers Silvestre Velez de Escalante and Francisco Atanasio Dominguez searched for a new route from New Mexico to California, and in doing so, they explored parts of present southern Colorado and Utah.

1802. Napoleon defeated Spain in battle. As spoils of war, France took ownership of Louisiana again in exchange for a couple of duchies in northern Italy.

1803 Louisiana Purchase. The United States acquired Louisiana from France, a vast area which had as a legal description, “the drainage of the Mississippi and Missouri rivers,” including all of Colorado east of the Rocky Mountains. However, Spain disagreed with that description and still claimed much of the Louisiana tract, including most of present Colorado. From their base in Santa Fe, the Spanish vowed to vigorously defend the area from any American intruders.

1804. Lewis and Clark’s Corps of Discovery left St. Louis via the Missouri River in search of a passage to the Pacific Ocean. Soon after, Spanish troops were dispatched from Santa Fe to Colorado to intercept and arrest them, but Lewis and Clark found the route north of Colorado to be more convenient. They were well into present South Dakota by the time the Spanish troops finally gave up looking for them.

1806-1807. Captain Zebulon Pike and a party of about 20 U.S. soldiers were sent to explore routes across the area of the Louisiana Purchase to the Rocky Mountains. Pike crossed the Sangre de Cristo Mountains to the Conejos River in the San Luis Valley, where he built Pike’s Stockade. He was soon placed under arrest by Spanish troops and taken to Santa Fe; but he and his men were released after a short time, and escorted back to the Arkansas River. In 1810, Pike’s published narrative of his expedition was the first English language description of the Spanish culture in North America. It was a best seller in America and Europe, and became an important source of information to a new breed of would-be trappers curious about routes to the Rocky Mountains.

1819 The Adams-Onís Treaty set the boundary between American and Spanish territory, which included the Red River as the boundary between Spanish Texas and U.S., then north to the Colorado River as the division between the Spanish Province of Nuevo Mexico and U.S. Missouri Territory, and then north along the Continental Divide to the 42nd Parallel, and finally, west to the Pacific Ocean. Before the treaty, the Spanish claims were loosely defined as everything west of the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean and north to at least the 42nd Parallel. As a result of the treaty, the northeastern section of present Colorado was first recognized by Spain as part of the United States (the area east of the Continental Divide and north of the Arkansas River).

1820. Major Stephen H. Long was sent by President James Monroe to explore the present Colorado region of the Louisiana Purchase. Long’s party came by way of the Platte and South Platte Rivers. Long’s Peak was named for him. Dr. Edwin James, historian of Long’s expedition, led the first recorded ascent of Pike’s Peak. James Peak, west of Denver, was named for him. Before entering present Colorado, Long and James established the main route to the Rocky Mountains via the Platte River through present Nebraska, on what would become known as the Oregon Trail.

1821. Mexico gained independence from Spain and soon after, Mexico reaffirmed the 1819 Spanish-U.S. treaty line as the Mexican-American boundary. Mexican lands were from the Louisiana line at the Sabine River, including all of present Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, and California; all of present Utah and Nevada; and present Colorado west of the Continental Divide and south of the Arkansas River. Also in 1821, the first traders from the United States came into the Mexican Province of Nuevo Mexico via southeastern Colorado on what would become known as the Mountain Route of the Santa Fe Trail.

1825. Fur-traders, trappers and Mountain Men began operations in present Colorado, including the Bent brothers, Ceran St. Vrain, Louis Vasquez, Kit Carson, Jim Baker, James Bridger, Thomas Fitzpatrick, “Uncle Dick” Wooten, and Jim Beckworth. The first trading posts they established were located in either the Arkansas River Valley or the South Platte Valley.

1832. Bent’s Fort was built by the Bents and St. Vrain near the present city of La Junta. For anyone following the Colorado River from Fort Dodge, Bent’s Fort became an important stop on the Santa Fe Trail.

1836. The new Republic of Texas asserted a claim to all land east of the Rio Grande through present New Mexico and a narrow strip of mountain territory extending into present Colorado as far north as the 42nd parallel.

1841. Texas soldiers invaded Nuevo Mexico, but were never successful in taking political control away from Mexico.

1842. Lieutenant John C. Fremont undertook the first of his five exploration trips into the Rocky Mountains and beyond.

1845. As a condition of the annexation of Texas to the United States, the Texas Claim to parts of New Mexico and Colorado was taken over by the United States. A war with Mexico resulted from this action.

1846. General Stephen W. Kearney led troops along the Santa Fe Trail through southeastern Colorado en route to the conquest of New Mexico during the Mexican War. Kearney established the provisional New Mexico Territory, which operated under U.S. protection until officially established by Congress four years later. The provisional New Mexico Territory included a sizeable portion of present Colorado south of the Arkansas River.

1848 Mexican Cession. At the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ending the war with Mexico, the United States annexed the area of present California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona (north of the Gila River), New Mexico, and that part of Colorado west of the Continental Divide. The U.S. paid Mexico a sum of eighteen million dollars for an area that was over half of the Republic of Mexico and comparable in size to the Louisiana Purchase.


1850. The 1850 Federal Census was taken in New Mexico Territory (Jun 1850) and Utah Territory (Apr 1851). New Mexico Territory included present Colorado south of the Arkansas River; Utah Territory included present western Colorado; and eastern Colorado was in the “Unorganized Territory” of the great plains. No population was returned from any of the Colorado areas.

1851. The first permanent white settlement in present Colorado was founded at Conejos in the San Luis Valley; irrigation was begun; and Fort Massachusetts was established. The settlement was actually in New Mexico Territory at its founding.

1853. In May, Captain John W. Gunnison led an exploring party across southern and western Colorado to survey a feasible route for a railroad through the Rocky Mountains. He was successful in mapping much of the area between the 38th and 39th parallels, but was killed in an Indian attack in October 1853. Much of Gunnison’s survey work was the completion of surveys begun by John C. Fremont’s 1847 expedition.

1854. Kansas and Nebraska Territories were established. Both extended from the Missouri River to the Continental Divide. The area of present Colorado was now within four U.S. Territories: Utah, New Mexico, Kansas, and Nebraska Territories.

1858. Green Russell’s discovery of placer gold deposits near the confluence of the South Platte River and Cherry Creek, precipitated a gold rush from the East. The “Pikes Peak or Bust” slogan began. Montana City, St. Charles, Auraria, and Denver City were founded. Pueblo was founded as Fountain City. Arapahoe County, Kansas Territory was organized.

1859. In October, Jefferson Territory was organized to govern the first mining camps and towns of present Colorado. Officers were elected, several counties were established, and in 1860, the territorial capital was established at Golden, where it would return in 1862 after Colorado City was named the first capital of Colorado Territory in 1861. Although the territorial government was never sanctioned by the U.S. Congress, Jefferson Territory operated with the consent of the local population. Also in this year, prospectors spread throughout the mountains and established camps at Boulder, Colorado City, Gold Hill, Hamilton, Tarryall, and Pueblo. Gold was found by George A. Jackson along Chicago Creek on the present site of Idaho Springs. John Gregory made his famous gold-lode strike on North Clear Creek, stimulating a rush of prospectors, who established camps of Black Hawk, Central City and Nevadaville.

1860. For the 1860 federal census, the U.S. Census Office ignored Jefferson Territory, but included an enumeration of any inhabitants of present Colorado as part of four U.S. territories: New Mexico, Nebraska, Kansas, and Utah Territories. Also in 1860, rich placer discoveries caused a stampede of miners to California Gulch at the present site of Leadville. The Colorado region continued to be administered by Jefferson Territory officials, Miners’ Courts, and People’s Courts. See the 1860 Colorado Map on page CO-10 (of the Colorado Name Lists book).

1861. After a successful invasion of the Rio Grande Valley by Confederate troops, the Confederate Territory of Arizona was declared with the capital at Mesilla. The territory included the southern half of present New Mexico and Arizona.

1861. In February, Colorado Territory was established by the U.S. Congress with the same boundaries as the present state, ending the ephemeral reign of Jefferson Territory. The first Colorado Territorial Assembly met, created 17 counties, authorized a university, and selected Colorado City as the capital. The wild west town of Colorado City was a bit too wild for even early Colorado, where saloons outnumbered churches 20 to 1. After a year, the capital was moved to Golden, about 15 miles from Denver. As part of the organic act creating Colorado Territory, a territory-wide census was required. In late 1861, the territory conducted a census as part of an election poll taken by each of the county assessors, the combined county name lists at the state archives now called the 1861 Poll Book for Colorado.

1862. Colorado troops were instrumental in defeating Confederate General Henry H. Sibley’s Army at La Glorieta Pass. The confederate control of New Mexico/Arizona ended, and the U.S. Territory of New
Mexico continued, including the parts of present Colorado south of the Arkansas River.

1863. Arizona Territory was created by the U.S. Congress. The northern boundary of Arizona Territory extended west to the California line, and included all of present Clark County, Nevada. When
Congress divided New Mexico Territory on the same meridian as Colorado Territory’s western line, the resulting map created the “four corners” of Colorado, Utah, Arizona, and New Mexico, still the only point in the U.S. where four states touch at their corners.

1866. A Colorado Territorial Census/Poll List was taken by county assessors. The lists included the names of all males over 21. Only two county lists survive.

1867. The Colorado Territorial capital was moved from Golden to Denver.

1870 Federal Census. Population of Colorado Territory at 39,864. Also in 1870, the Denver and Pacific Railroad was constructed to connect Denver with the Union Pacific at Cheyenne, Wyoming Territory.

1870-1886. The valley called North Park, which is in present-day Jackson County, Colorado, lies east of the Continental Divide, as shown on the 1860 map on page CO-10 (of the Colorado Name Lists book). The valley was not settled by whites in 1860 and 1870, but in 1870 was assumed by local officials to be part of Summit County. North Park in the 1880 and 1885 censuses was enumerated as part of Grand County, despite being claimed by Larimer. In 1886, the Colorado Supreme Court ruled that statutorily North Park had been in Larimer County since 1861.

1876. Colorado was admitted to the Union as the 38th State, one hundred years after the Declaration of Independence of the United States, hence, Colorado’s nickname became “The Centennial State.” The territorial capital of Denver became the state capital.

1880 Federal Census. Population of Colorado at 194,327.

1885. Colorado State Census was taken with federal assistance. This was the only state census taken in Colorado.

1900 Federal Census. Population of Colorado at 539,700. In 1900, Gold production reaches a peak of more than $20,000,000 annually at Cripple Creek, the second richest gold camp in the world.

2001 Broomfield County. The last county created in the U.S., in November, Broomfield County became the 64th and smallest county of Colorado.

From: Colorado Name Lists, 1858 – 1998, with a selection of National Name Lists, 1600s – Present.

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Old Jewish Headstones Unburied at Vienna Cemetery

The following excerpt is from an article posted in the July 10, 2013 edition of

Jewish gravestones unearthed at a small cemetery in Vienna were hailed on Wednesday as historically important cultural treasures that could rival the famed Jewish cemetery in Prague.

Restoration work at the 16th century Seegasse cemetery has discovered 20 gravestones that are centuries old and were buried by Viennese Jews in 1943 to hide them from the Nazis ruling the country, the IKG Jewish community organization said.

Many Jewish cemeteries were destroyed during World War II by the Nazis who stole headstones and desecrated graves.

The IKG said these gravestones were found carefully buried in two to three layers separated by earth and could be just the first of many other “hidden jewels” to be found there.

Their location had remained unknown as many of the people who hid the gravestones did not survive the war.

Read the full article.

See photos with an AP article in the July 10, 2013 edition of the New York Daily News.

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Proving Native Hawaiian Descent Simplified

A new Hawaiian state law which allows proof of ancestry to come from a number of sources should make it easier to expand the roll of Native Hawaiians.

The new law went into effect on July 1, and aims to expand the roll by reducing paperwork on the various lists of Native Hawaiians.

The new law allows the commission to use information from governmental entities like Kame­ha­meha Schools, the Department of Hawaiian Home Lands or State Department of Health to compile the Native Hawaiian roll.

For more information, see an AP article from the July 8, 2013 edition of the Staradvertiser:

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Shoebox 3.0 Allows Genealogists to Upload to Ancestry, and More…

The following teaser is from an article by Sarah Perez at the July 4, 2013 edition of

Shoebox, the mobile photo archiving app acquired from San Francisco-based 1000memories last fall, has now gone live at its new home. The updated version of the app, Shoebox 3.0, still allows users to scan in their old non-digital prints – you know, those things the old folks still refer to as “photographs” – while also cropping and auto-flattening the images for the correct perspective. But now, those photos are no longer in their own, more isolated social networking site, as they were when hosted by 1000memories. Instead, the photos can be mapped, tagged and added to your family tree at

Read the full article.

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Louisiana Adoption Search Angel Helps Adoptees

The following teaser is from an excellent article in the July 6, 2013 edition of
Brenda Frisard - Adoption Search Angel

LAPLACE [LOUISIANA] – Brenda Frisard, a retired postmaster from LaPlace, is what one might call a “search angel.”

Thousands of Louisiana adoptees search for information on their parents every year. Some are able to find what they need, but others are not so lucky — it is more than just a matter of searching for children who were adopted through a sealed process. These adoptees must retrieve their original paperwork and hope it contains enough information to find a lead. Because of the Louisiana laws, the process can be long and disheartening. Many need help but do not know where to turn. This is where Frisard comes into play.

“They’re all looking for a search angel — that’s what they call us. We do it for free. I don’t do this for the money. It’s something I do because I’m very passionate about what I believe in,” said Frisard.

Frisard has actively lobbied for the rights of adoptees. This year, she made it to the Senate floor with a proposed bill that would allow adoptees to access their original birth certificates, SB 155. The bill was signed by the governor and was sponsored by Sen. Danny Martiny.

“We made this bill to protect both sides. We covered every base, ” said Frisard.

Read the full article.

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Crucible of War: The Seven Years’ War and the Fate of Empire in British North America, 1754-1766

vb01Do you think you know what the Seven Years’ War was about? Do you really understand it influence on shaping the colonies as a precursor to the American Revolution? After reading The Crucible of War you may just change your mind.

Winston S. Churchill called the Seven Years’ War the first world war. North Americans associate it primarily with the British conquest of Canada. But the conflict — in which Britain and Prussia opposed France, Austria and Spain — spread to Europe, the Caribbean, West Africa, India and the Philippines. Though it formally lasted from 1756 until 1763, the war’s first shots were fired in the spring of 1754 between French troops asserting their country’s claim to the Ohio Valley and Virginians commanded by the 22-year-old George Washington. Two of America’s most eminent historians devoted years of research and writing to the great contest for empire. In the 20th century Lawrence Henry Gipson published a three-volume history. In the 19th century Francis Parkman considered his ”Montcalm and Wolfe” to be his crowning achievement. Now Fred Anderson, a professor of history at the University of Colorado, has written a panoramic narrative of the North American phase of the Seven Years’ War, an ambitious undertaking he discharges superbly. ~ CHARLES ROYSTER, New York Times Book Review (New York Times on the Web; Article Link)

Fred Andres is an Associate Professor of History at the University of Colorado, Boulder. His goal, like that of many historians, was to write a “book accessible to general readers that will also satisfy [his] fellow historian’s scholarly expectations.” In the Crucible of War: The Seven Years’ War and the Fate of Empire in British North America, 1754-1766, Fred Anderson succeeded marvelously. This book is an historical narrative describing the events, people, and politics associated with what the colonists called the French and Indian War. In these pages you learn how and where many future leaders of the American Revolution developed their political view points and honed their military skills.

“Histories of the American Revolution tend to start in 1763, the end of the Seven Year’s War, a worldwide struggle for empire that pitted France against England in North America, Europe, and Asia. Fred Anderson, who teaches history at the University of Colorado, takes the story back a decade and explains the significance of the conflict in American history. Demonstrating that independence was not inevitable or even at first desired by the colonists, he shows how removal of the threat from France was essential before Americans could develop their own concepts of democratic government and defy their imperial British protectors. Of great interest is the importance of Native Americans in the conflict. Both the French and English had Indian allies; France’s defeat ended a diplomatic system in which Indian nations, especially the 300-year-old Iroquois League, held the balance between the colonial powers. In a fast-paced narrative, Anderson moves with confidence and ease from the forests of Ohio and battlefields along the St. Lawrence to London’s House of Commons and the palaces of Europe. He makes complex economic, social, and diplomatic patterns accessible and easy to understand. Using a vast body of research, he takes the time to paint the players as living personalities, from George III and George Washington to a host of supporting characters. The book’s usefulness and clarity are enhanced by a hundred landscapes, portraits, maps, and charts taken from contemporary sources. Crucible of War is political and military history at its best; it never flags and is a pleasure to read. ~ JOHN STEVENSON, Professor/Dean at the University of Colorado

Few people have a true appreciation for the role of The Seven Years’ War in both America as well as the world at large. Few historians have the knack for narrative that Anderson excels at within these pages. The pages turn as easily as those in a favorite novel.

Here is more praise for this historical work:

“A wonderful book. Fred Anderson brings to life  a war that irrevocably shaped our nation. I wish all history were written this well.” ~ SEBASTIAN JUGER, author of The Perfect Storm.

“Reading Crucible of War is an enriching experience…Anyone who thinks that individuals have no significant effect on the fate of nations should ponder Mr. Anderson’s cast of characters.” ~ The Wall Street Journal



List of Illustrations

Introduction: The Seven Years’ War and the Disruption of the Old British Empire


Prologue: Jumonville’s Glen, May 28, 1754

Part I: The Origins of the Seven Years’ War, 1450-1754

  1. Iroquoia and Empire
  2. The Erosion of Iroquois Influence
  3. London Moves to Counter a Threat
  4. Washington Steps onto the Stage…
  5. …And Stumbles
  6. Escalation

Part II: Defeat, 1754-1755

  1. The Albany Congress and Colonial Disunion
  2. General Braddock Takes Command
  3. Disaster on the Monogahela
  4. After Braddock: William Shirley and the Norther Campaigns
  5. British Politics, and a Revolution in European Diplomacy

Part III: Nadir, 1756-1757

  1. Lord Loundoun Takes Command
  2. Oswego
  3. The State of the Central Colonies
  4. The Strains of Empire: Causes of Anglo-American Friction
  5. Britain Drifts into a European War
  6. The Fortunes of War in Europe
  7. Loudoun’s Offensive
  8. Fort William Henry
  9. Other Disasters, and a Ray of Hope
  10. Pitt Changes Course

Part IV: Turning Point, 1758

  1. Deadlock, and a New Beginning
  2. Old Strategies, New Men, and a Shift in the Balance
  3. Montcalm Raises a Cross: The Battle of Ticonderoga
  4. Amherst at Louisbourg
  5. Supply Holds the Key
  6. Bradstreet at Fort Frontenac
  7. Indian Diplomacy and the Fall of Fort Duquesne
  8. Educations in Arms

Part V: Annus Mirabilis, 1759

  1. Success, Anxiety, and Power: The Ascent of William Pitt
  2. Ministerial Uncertainties
  3. Surfeit of Enthusiasm, Shortage of Resources
  4. Emblem of Empire: Fort Pitt and the Indians
  5. The Six Nations Join the Fight: The Siege of Niagara
  6. General Amherst Hesitates: Ticonderoga and Crown Point
  7. Dubious Battle: Wolfe Meets Montcalm at Quebec
  8. Fall’s Frustrations
  9. Celebration of Empire, Expectations of the Millennium
  10. Day of Decision: Quiberon Bay

Part VI: Conquest Completed, 1760

  1. War in Full Career
  2. The Insufficiency of Valor: Levis and Vauquelin at Quebec
  3. Murray Ascends the St. Lawrence
  4. Conquest Completed: Vaudreuil Surrenders at Montreal
  5. The Causes of Victory and the Experience of Empire
  6. Pitt Confronts an Unexpected Challenge

Victory Recollected: Scenographia Americana

Part VIII: Vexed Victory, 1761-1763

  1. The Fruits of victory and the Seeds of Disintegration
  2. The Cherokeet War and Amherst’s Reforms in Indian Policy
  3. Amherst’s Dilemma
  4. Pitt’s Problems
  5. The End of an Alliance
  6. The Intersections of Empire, Trade, and War: Havana
  7. Peace
  8. The Rise of Wilkes, the Fall of Bute, and the Unheeded Lesson of Manila
  9. Anglo-America at War’s End: The Fragility of Empire
  10. Yankees Invade Wyoming—and Pay the Price
  11. Amherst’s Reforms and Pontiac’s War
  12. Amhert’s Recall

Part VIII: Crisis and Reform, 1764

  1. Death Reshuffles a Ministry
  2. An Urgent Search for Order: Grenville and Halifax Confront the Need for Revenue and Control
  3. The American Duties Act (The Sugar Act)
  4. The Currency Act
  5. Postwar Conditions and the Context of Colonial Response
  6. An Ambiguous Response to Imperial Initiatives
  7. Pontiac’s Progress
  8. The Lessons of Pontiac’s War

Part IX: Crisis Compounds, 1765-1766

  1. Stamp Act and Quartering Act
  2. Grenville’s End
  3. The Assemblies Vacillate
  4. Mobs Respond
  5. Nullification by Violence, and an Elite Effort to Reassert Control

Part X: Empire Preserved? 1766

  1. The Repeal of the Stamp Act
  2. The Hallowness of Empire
  3. Acrimonious Postlude: The Colonies after Repeal
  4. The Future of Empire

Epilogue: Mount Vernon, June 24, 1767





Crucible of War: The Seven Years’ War and the Fate of Empire in British North America, 1754-1766 is available from Family Roots Publishing; Price: $22.54.

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