Pocahontas and Her Descendants

There are plenty of historical biographies of Pocahontas, a.k.a. Matoaka. However, there is only one that stands as the best guide to her descendants: Pocahontas and Her Descendents by Wyndham Robertson. This short volume contains the “Tree of Pocahontas and Rolfe, as it has grown from them as its root to its seventh season (inclusive) or fruitage.” Biographical sketches accompany some of more “notable products.”

Despite historical misrepresentations, made no more clear by certain movies and media that suggest otherwise, Pocahontas had no extensive relationship with Captain John Smith. She, in fact, married the well-known gentleman, John Rolfe. His historical popularity, though capable of standing on his own accounts, has mainly been thrust into the shadows of obscurity, becoming predominately known as little more that the husband of the famous Indian maid, Pocahontas. The only child of their union was Thomas Rolfe, who’s only child was Jane Rolfe; thus, there ending the Rolfe name in the line of this famous couple.

There are, however, many other names in the seven generations covered in this book. These are mentioned it the rather lengthy , if descriptive, full title for this volume:

Pocahontas, Alias Matoaka, and Her Descendants Through Her Marriage at Jamestown, Virginia, in April, 1614 with John Rolfe, Gentleman; Including the Names of Alfriend, Archer, Bentley, Bernard, Bland, Bolling, Branch, Cabell, Catlett, Cary, Dandridge, Dixon, Douglas, Duval, Eldgride, Ellett, Gerguson, Field, Fleming, Gay, Fordon, Griffin, Grayson, Harrison, Hubard, Lewis, Logan, Marham, Meade, McRae, Murray, Page, Poythress, Randolph, Robertson, Skipwith, Stanard, Tazewell, Walke, West, Whittle, and Others. With Biographical Sketches by Wyndham Robertson, and Illustrative Historical Notes by R. A. Brock

Seven generations carry births in this line into the beginning of the 1800’s. This book was originally published in 1887 and has been reprinted many time, most recently in 2008.

A great companion book to this descendants lists, with one of the best biographies on the life of Matoaka, is Pocahontas by Stuart E. Brown, Jr.


Contents of Pocahontas and Her Descendants

Genealogical deduction of descendants of Pocahontas to the seventh generation inclusive

Notice of Pocahontas

  • John Rolfe
  • Thomas Rolfe

Descendants of Pocahontas

  • In the second degree
  • In the third degree
  • In the fourth degree
  • In the fifth degree
  • In the sixth degree
  • In the seventh degree


Notice of

  • John Bolling
  • Jane Bolling
  • Mary Bolling
  • Anne Bolling
  • Thomas Bolling and Elizabeth Gay
  • John Bolling, Jr.
  • Robert Bolling of “Chellow”
  • Archibald Bolling
  • Elizabeth Randolph, wife of R. K. Meade
  • Mary Murray, wife of Col. William Davies
  • Elizabeth Bolling, wife of William Robertson
  • William Bolling
  • Thomas Bolling
  • Lenaeus Bolling
  • Powhatan Bolling
  • Blair Bolling
  • Dr. William Tazewell
  • John Randolph, of Roanoke
  • The Whittle Family
  • Rt. Rev. F. M. Whittle, D. D., LL.D
  • Thomas Bolling Robertson
  • John Robertson
  • Wyndham Robertson
  • Charles Joseph Cabell
  • Jenny Eldridge

A copy of Pocahontas and Her Descendants is attainable from Family Roots Publishing; Price: $21.56.


Salt Lake Christmas Tour……… Week’s Peek

Our collective heart goes out to all those affected by Hurricane Sandy and her sidekick the “Frankenstorm.”

Many of our dearest friends live in this area; many of the libraries and archives we hold dear are located in this area. A great deal of American history is centered in these states.  These storms not only affect people and their lives but repositories and history. Really is pause to ponder.

Donna, aka Mother Hen, until next time.

We’ve Got a Winner!… of a Flip-Pal mobile scanner With Creativity Suite 3

The Family Roots Publishing Co. / Couragent, Inc. free Flip-Pal contest was a real winner! And the winner of the Flip-Pal mobile scanner was Rebecca M Trujillo Batty, of Lehi, Utah.

We had many entries, and it was hard to narrow it down to just 25 to do the drawing from. Once we had it down to 25 entries, we let my 4-year old grandson dig through the box and pick out the winning entry.

Rebecca’s entry was a follows:

After winning the Flip-Pal mobile scanner, the best use for this holiday season would be to put together photo collages for my older siblings who have a different mom but the same dad. I have one family pic of them with their biological parents that they would all appreciate! Even the ones that don’t talk to me anymore, since our dad passed away!

Rebecca’s Flip-Pal mobile scanner with Creativity Suite 3 will be shipped directly to her by Couragent, Inc. of Loveland, Colorado.

Salt Lake Christmas Tour………………. Another Week’s Peek

Professional – Stan Lindaas

Counting “up” alphabetically, next on our list of the professional helpers for our Salt Lake Christmas Tour is Stan Lindaas……………. I’ve known Stan for a decade or more and know he’s extremely knowledgeable and helps us with a droll sense of humor………….. we’re so lucky to have him on our team!!
Stan Lindaas has 35 years of professional genealogical experience, including being a former employee of the Family History Library in Salt Lake City; former editor of the Utah Genealogical Association Journal; an Advisory Board member for ProQuest; and President of the Salt Lake Chapter of the Association of Professional Genealogists. Stan owns the Salt Lake City genealogical research firm, Heritage Consulting, and lectures on genealogical subjects.

New Books on the Early Settlers of Great Falls, Montana

The follwoing excerpt is from the October 26, 2012 edition of the Great Falls Tribune:

Talk began in 2004 among genealogy buffs about writing a book about Great Falls’ early residents.

Members of the Great Falls Genealogy Society and others would try to list everyone who lived in Great Falls in its early years. It would be a lot of work, maybe even a crazy project to take on.

“We were naive, delightfully naive,” Janet Thomson, editor of the book, said with a smile.

Eight years later, a pair of soft-cover books, “Early Settlers of Great Falls,” volumes 1 and 2, are available for sale, covering the period from the city’s founding in 1884 to 1920, after World War I was over.

The book can be a great research tool, but it’s also fun to read, Thomson said. It traces the rapid growth of Great Falls, from a concept in the 1880s through periods of heavy growth.

Read the full article.

Click here for an order form.

Board for Certification of Genealogists Announces Trustee & Website Changes

The following news release of October 26, 2012 is from Elissa Scalise Powell, CG, CGL:

Elissa Scalise Powell, CG, CGL, President of the Board for Certification of Genealogists, announced trustee changes to the Board for Certification of Genealogists (BCG), effective 14 October 2012. Yearly elections bring new or incumbent trustees to the board for three-year terms. Going off the board this year are:

  • Ann Carter Fleming, CG, CGL, of Missouri
  • Barbara Mathews, CG, of Massachusetts
  • Christine Rose, CG, CGL, FASG, of California
  • Willis H. White, CG, of Virginia

According to President Powell, “We heartily thank those who are leaving their trustee positions for their service to the board. We trust that they will continue to contribute to the many facets of genealogical research, scholarship, and activities and wish them well in all future endeavors.”

The fifteen current members of BCG’s Board of Trustees are:

  • Elissa Scalise Powell, CG, CGL, of Pennsylvania, President,
  • Michael S. Ramage, JD, CG, of Pennsylvania, Vice-president
  • Dawne Slater-Putt, CG, of Indiana, Secretary
  • Jeanne Larzalere Bloom, CG, of Illinois, Treasurer
  • Stefani Evans, CG, of Nevada, Executive Committee Member-at-Large
  • CindyLee Butler Banks, CG, AG®, of Nebraska
  • Warren Bittner, CG, of Utah
  • Laura Murphy DeGrazia, CG, of New York
  • Victor S. Dunn, CG, of Virginia
  • Alison Hare, CG, of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
  • Thomas W. Jones, PhD, CG, CGL, FASG, of Virginia
  • David McDonald, CG, of Wisconsin
  • Debra S. Mieszala, CG, of Illinois
  • Elizabeth Shown Mills, CG, CGL, FASG, of Tennessee
  • Judy G. Russell, JD, CG, of New Jersey

Many people wonder if board certification is for them. To address this question, BCG is placing website help in the form of a new certification seminar and several audio testimonials of which three are currently available at http://bcgcertification.org/certification/why.html. We hope you will enjoy hearing from the immediate past president, David McDonald, CG; a librarian, Beth Stahr, CG; and a professional genealogist, Michael Hait, CG, who offer their reasons for seeking certification. Testimonials rotate periodically, so please check back to hear more.

The Certification Seminar is a one-hour presentation that explains in detail what is expected of applicants when they assemble a portfolio and what applicants can expect of the certification process. Presented by Elissa Scalise Powell, CG, CGL, Thomas W. Jones, Ph.D., CG, CGL, FASG, and David McDonald, CG, it was taped in August 2012 by FamilySearch and is also a part of its Learning Center video library. BCG would like to thank FamilySearch for making this video possible. Societies and individuals are invited to view the seminar at http://bcgcertification.org/seminar/index.html.

Founded in 1964, the mission of the Board for Certification of Genealogists is to foster public confidence in genealogy as a respected branch of history by promoting an attainable, uniform standard of competence and ethics among genealogical practitioners, and by publicly recognizing persons who meet that standard. The publication The BCG Genealogical Standards Manual sets forth the currently accepted standards for all areas of genealogical research.

Certified Genealogist, Certified Genealogical Lecturer, CG and CGL are proprietary service marks of the Board for Certification of Genealogists (BCG) used by the Board to identify its program of genealogical competency and evaluation and used under license by the Board’s associates. The Board’s name is registered with the U.S. Patent & Trademark Office.

The South Georgia Historic Newspapers Archive Expands

The following announcement is excerpted from an October 25, 2012 article by Donnie Summerlin, published in the blog of the Digital Library of Georgia.

The Digital Library of Georgia is pleased to announce the expansion of the South Georgia Historic Newspapers Archive:


The South Georgia Historic Newspapers Archive now provides access to fifteen newspaper titles published in nine south Georgia cities (Albany, Americus, Bainbridge, Brunswick, Cuthbert, Tifton, Thomasville, Valdosta, and Waycross) from 1845 to 1922. Consisting of over 141,000 newspaper pages, the archive provides historical images that are both full-text searchable and can be browsed by date.

The archive now includes the following Athens newspaper titles: Albany Herald (1892-1893, 1900-1901, 1906), Albany News (1867-1892), Bainbridge Democrat (1872-1909), Bainbridge Search Light/Post-Search Light (1901-1922), Brunswick Advertiser/Advertiser and Appeal (1875-1889), Cuthbert Appeal (1866-1886), Tifton Gazette (1892-1919), Waycross Headlight (1884-1887), Waycross Herald (1892-1914), and Waycross Journal (1901-1914) in addition to the titles previously included in the archive: Albany Patriot (1845-1866), Americus Times Recorder (1881-1921), Sumter Republican (1870-1885), Thomasville Times Enterprise (1873-1922), Valdosta Times (1908-1912).

Read the full article.

Thanks to ResearchBuzz for the heads-up.

Central Pennsylvania Marriages 1700-1896

Central Pennsylvania Marriages 1700-1896 is a small straight forward book of marriages as compiled by Charles A. Fisher. Originally  compiled and published in 1946, the book was last reprinted in 2005. Apart from the actual entries, the author makes only this one note:

“Users of this compilation should remember that this is not a complete record of all marriages that took place in central Pennsylvania, but only such as the compiler was able to locate in public and private records. Many of these have never before been published.”

That said, I estimate there are upwards of 5,000 marriages listed in this book. Each record includes date of marriage, names of both the man and the woman, and either the place of marriage of the residence of each part. Contents include the following:

Part I Miscellaneous Marriages, 1700-1896

Part II Union County Marriages, 1795-1829

Part III Rev. J. G. Anspach Marriages, Union County, 1831-1850

Part IV Rev. J. P. Shindel, Jr. Marriages, Snyder and Union Counties, 1835-1887

Part V Rev. A. B. Casper, Marriages, Snyder and Union Counties, 1839-1882

Part VI Rev. C. G. Erlenmeyer, Marriages, Snyder County, 1840-1875

Part VII Revolutionary Soldier Marriages


Add to your own personal library, or help out a library close to home by ordering Central Pennsylvania Marriages 1700-1896, available at Family Roots Publishing; Price: $9.80.

Becoming An Excellent Genealogist: Essays On Professional Research Skills

Genealogy is a hobby for many, a profession for others, and a passion for almost all practitioners. However, the one word that may be least used but best describes genealogy is science. Research science takes both skill and creative thinking. Genealogy is no different in this regard than any other science. And, like other scientists, genealogists, whether professionals or merely enthusiasts, are dedicated to finding answers through laborious, and sometimes difficult, research. Any research project is bound to encounter difficulties. Genealogists understand stumbling blocks all too well. Constant learning is the key to successful research and by-passing research dilemmas. Books, the Internet, magazines, conferences, and working with other genealogists are all avenues to expanded knowledge. Understanding the need to learn from the best resources, the International Commission for the Accreditation of Professional Genealogists (ICAPGen) has published Becoming An Excellent Genealogist: Essays On Professional Research Skills.

In referring to research issues, the Commission had this to say:

“… Every genealogical problem to be solved varies, to some degree, from every other problems.

Successfully navigating those difficulties is challenging, It takes a certain aptitude, as well as certain knowledge that may not be readily available…

The avocation of genealogy has grown. It is time to provide a higher level of instruction to more family historians in a convenient and inexpensive format. Yes, it takes time, effort, and (indeed) money to become an excellent (or advanced) genealogist.”

This is why the group has published Becoming an Excellent Genealogists. This collection of essay by experienced, professional genealogists “teaches concepts and methodology not usually taught in classes or other books.” This collection brings together generations of experience with the personal twist and examples of individual researchers. The essays are easy to understand, and explore research area both unique and critical to overall research success. Except for maybe the newest of beginners, this book has something to all levels of researcher. Even highly experienced professionals can benefit from another professionals experience and unique examples.

Consider this new 2012 guide a critical part of any researcher’s library. Inside the reader will find 25 helpful essays from 24 of the country’s top professional genealogists. The first essay asks, “What Makes an Excellent Genealogists?” Just pick up a copy and find the answers for yourself.



Acknowledgements, by Kory L. Meyerink



Research foundations

1. What Makes an Excellent Genealogist?, by Kory L. Meyerink

2. Elements of Genealogy, by Kory L. Meyerink

Research Concepts and Methodologies

3. Genealogical Analysis, by Marilyn Markham

4. Avoiding the Assumption Trap, by Apryl cox

5. Demography as a Tool for Genealogists, by Karhryn Daynes

6. Migration Methodology, by Karen Clifford

7. Strategies for Tracing Female Lines, by Judith Eccles Wight

8. Casting the Net Wide: Searching Horizontal Kin and Neighbors, by Amy Harris

9. Researching Minorities in the United States, by Jimmy B. Parker

10. Big City Research, by James W. Petty

11. An Introduction to Medieval Research, by John Kitzmiller

12. Timelines: Essential to the Genealogist’s Toolbox, by Joy Price

13. Using DNA to Find Immigrant Origins, by Nathan W. Murphy

14. Child-Naming Patterns: A Tool to Assist with Family Reconstitution, by Richard Woodruff Price

Records and Information

15. Jurisdictions: Who Created the Record? by Loretta Evans

16. Getting the Most out of Electronic Indexes, by Suzanne Russo Adams

17. Effective use of Libraries, by Chad R. Milliner

Recording and Reporting

18. Documentation and Source Citation, by Amy Harris

19. Writing a Quality Research Report, by Linda K. Gulbrandsen

20. Good Writing: Essential to Becoming an Excellent Genealogist, by Tristan L. Tolman

21. Making Sure Your Work Survives You, by Anne Leptich

22. Paleography: Abstracting, Transcribing, Translating, by Ruth Ellen Maness and Heidi G. Sugden

Professional Work in Genealogy

23. A Brief History of the Accreditation Program, by Jill N. Crandell

24. When to Hire a Professional, by Tricia H. Petrey

25. ICAPGen Accreditation Process and Procedures, by Carolyn J. Nell


Becoming An Excellent Genealogist: Essays On Professional Research Skills, a new book from ICAPGen, is available from Family Roots Publishing; Price: $19.55

Memories are Fragile & Easily Distorted

They say that five people can see the same event unfold and all remember what they saw differently. That’s bad enough, but now there’s solid evidence that our memories change with recall. That’s downright scary for the genealogist. I found an article posted in the October 21, 2012 edition of Tampa Bay Online to be very enlightening. Now … if I can only remember exactly what I read…

I doubt very many genealogists consider themselves scientists. A recent study —published in the Journal of Neuroscience — however, offers proof that valid genealogical study works on a solid scientific basis and isn’t something based on whims of obsessed family historians.

Proof that a brain alters memories — and then believes it hasn’t — came from a study by Northwestern University’s Feinberg School of Medicine post doctoral fellow Donna Jo Bridge.

Bridge is studying long-term memory consolidation, focusing on points such as how an experience is transformed into a long-term representation, whether retrieving a memory influences what we remember later, and whether memories really reflect events that happened when they were initially experienced or whether they become distorted over time.

It’s quickly obvious that work in these areas would be critical to genealogical research, much of which depends on written accounts of historical events or interviews with (usually) elderly family members.

Bridge wrote “your memory of an event can grow less precise even to the point of being totally false with each retrieval.” She adds, “When someone tells me they are sure they remember exactly the way something happened, I just laugh.”

Read the full article.

Scary Names From the Old Records

The following snippet is from a short article posted in the October 25, 2012 edition of Coventry Telegraph.

Mary Scary, Fran Pire and Frank N Stein are among the peculiar names unearthed by a family history website.

Ancestry.co.uk said a study of names on its site going back hundreds of years, ranging from school registers and marriage records to phone books, revealed some unusual entries.

Read the full article.

National Archives and NOAA Announce Historic Navy Deck Log Digitization Partnership

Innovative project uses citizen scientists to transcribe historic weather data

Washington, DC…For the first time, the public will have free online access to historic Navy, Coast Guard and Revenue Cutter ship logs between the pre-Civil War period through World War II under a digitization project announced today by the National Archives and Records Administration and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).

As a result of this National Archives–NOAA partnership, and with the aid of citizen scientists, anyone, anywhere, with online access can glimpse a wealth of weather data and climate patterns from an age long before the Weather Channel.

In addition to weather data, these logbooks offer invaluable information on U.S. maritime history, military operations, scientific exploration, diplomacy, advances in technology, and near-hourly accounts of dramatic adventures on the high seas, including rescues and shipwrecks.

Digital images of the logbooks will be available on both the National Archives website at www.archives.gov and at www.oldweather.org. This ongoing digitization is part of the Obama-Medvedev Commission, which supports US-Russian relations through cooperation in many areas, including scientific study.

“We are happy to partner with National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration to bring these historic records to the public,” said David S. Ferriero, Archivist of the United States. “As a Navy man, I find these deck logs of great interest. They are a treasure-trove of information not only for scientists, but for historians, genealogists, and the public.”

NOAA and the National Archives are partnering with Zooniverse to unlock millions of weather, sea ice and other environmental observations,” said NOAA Administrator Dr. Jane Lubchenco. “Once converted into digital formats, new analysis of these data will help provide new insights into the past state of the Earth’s climate.”

Digitization projects with other government agencies and academic communities further the National Archives’ core mission — to preserve and make accessible the records of the Federal Government. Volunteer “citizen archivists” on-site and online continue to digitize thousands of Civil War widows’ pensions, transcribe 1940 census schedules to make a searchable index, and transcribe and tag documents on the National Archives website [www.archives.gov/citizen-archivist]. These projects make records available both to specialists in their fields and the general public.

The National Archives and Records Administration is an independent Federal agency that preserves and shares with the public records that trace the story of our nation, government, and the American people. From the Declaration of Independence to accounts of ordinary Americans, the holdings of the National Archives directly touch the lives of millions of people. The National Archives carries out its mission through a nationwide network of archives, records centers, and Presidential Libraries and online at www.archives.gov.

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s mission is to understand and predict changes in the Earth’s environment, from the depths of the ocean to the surface of the sun, and to conserve and manage our coastal and marine resources. Visit them at www.noaa.gov and join them on Facebook, Twitter, and our other social media channels. Contact: Linda Joy, 301-734-1165

The Old Weather citizen science project uses crowd sourcing and citizen archivists to
improve reconstructions of past weather and climate across the world by finding and recording historical weather observations in handwritten Navy ship logs. See www.oldweather.org

Zooniverse is the online host for numerous citizen scientist collaborative projects, including Old Weather.org.

The UK Met Office is the UK’s national weather service and one of the world’s leading providers of climate services. It supports a large number of customers in many different sectors, including civil aviation, defense and industry. It also supplies weather and climate data along with products and services to many countries throughout the world. Online at www.metoffice.gov.uk.

From the National Archives Press Release of Oct. 24, 2012.

Winter Time is a’Coming… and it’s Time for Research, Grandchildren & the Salt Lake Christmas Tour

We picked the last of the tomatoes, cucumbers, and cabbage on Tuesday, Wednesday the temperatures began to drop dramatically, and we woke up to snow this morning (Thursday, Oct 25, 2012). I doubt the snow will last long and temperatures this time of year fluctuate a lot in Utah.

Patty and I went out this afternoon and supervised the erection of a snowman with Roby and Tabitha. The snow was perfect for packing into a “Frosty,” and the kids had great fun.

Although genealogists usually attempt to try to do most of their “cousin visiting” in the summer, the colder months are our time to snuggle up in a warm blanket, chase ancestors on the computer and compile our genealogy databases. There’s a big exception to all that, and that’s the annual Salt Lake Christmas Tour which takes place the first full week of December each year. Now in it’s 28th year, we expect somewhere between 60 and 90 researchers to settle in at the Salt Lake Plaza Hotel again this year, working side-by-side with a dozen professional genealogists for a full week of intense research at the Family History Library.

We’ve still got space for more folks on the Christmas Tour. To learn all about it, click here.

New Databases at The Original Record

New databases added this week at The Original Record:

1702 – Irish Pensioners of William III’s Huguenot Regiments
From an original return in Miscellaneous Bundle 17 of the Civil List books preserved in the Public Record Office, William A. Shaw prepared this abstract, published in 1902. The paper itself was entitled ‘Abstract of the Examination of the French Pensioners now on the Civil List of the Establishment of Ireland’. The return was in book form with very wide pages, each folio or spread divided into eight columns. In his abstract the first number is the folio number; (a) is the name and station of the pensioner, either by first commission, second, or incorporated by warrant; (b) allowance on the establishment per diem; (c) where served and how long; (d) what substance and in what it consists; (e) what family they maintain; (f) able or not to serve, and why not; (g) when disbanded. In some cases some of the columns are blank in the original, and are ignored in this abstract. The least informative entries give just surname and rate of pension. Christian names are rarely given. The return is divided into two sections – Galloway’s Regiment, and Old Pensioners. The latter include some women, presumably widows. The return was forwarded to the Lords Justices of Ireland as an appendix to a report, dated 29 June 1702, from Charles Dering, Auditor-General of Ireland. In all there were 590 pensioners, 398 being in Galloway’s Regiment. Dering provided an analysis of the return, and annotated with an asterisk those ‘absent out of the kingdom, dead or otherwised provided for, whose names are in the abstract blank’; with a dagger those ‘that have been placed on the establishment by his late Majesty’s warrants & have not served’; and with a double dagger those ‘that have pensions above their stations markt upon the abstract.’

1796-1798 – Board of Stamps Apprenticeship Books: Country Collectors’ Returns
Apprenticeship indentures and clerks’ articles were subject to a 6d or 12d per pound stamp duty: the registers of the payments usually give the master’s trade, address, and occupation, and the apprentice’s name, as well as details of the date and length of the apprenticeship. There are central registers for collections of the stamp duty in London, as well as returns from collectors in the provinces. These collectors generally received duty just from their own county, but sometimes from further afield: in 1770 a change was made to describe many of the collectors according to their county rather than their town, but no change was made to the rule that they might stamp indentures from all the surrounding area, so these labels are deceptive. The indentures themselves can date from a year or two earlier than this return. There are returns from Bedfordshire, Berkshire, Brecknockshire, Bristol, Cambridgeshire, Cardiganshire, Cheshire, Cornwall, Cumberland, Denbighshire, Derbyshire, Devon, Dorset, Durham, Essex, Flintshire, Glamorganshire, Gloucestershire, Hampshire, Herefordshire, Hertfordshire, Huntingdonshire, East and West Kent, Lancashire, Leicestershire, Lincolnshire, Middlesex, Monmouthshire, Newcastle upon Tyne, Norfolk, Northamptonshire, Northumberland, Nottinghamshire, Oxfordshire, Scotland, Shropshire, Somerset, Staffordshire, Suffolk, Surrey, Sussex, Warwickshire, Westmorland, Wiltshire, Worcestershire, and Yorkshire, each of which has been indexed separately. IR 1/68

1833 – Subscribers to the Charity Schools of St Andrew Holborn
The Charity Schools of St Andrew, Holborn, were supported by private benefactions and subscriptions. This list of the subscribers, for 1833, gives their names and addresses and the amount of their subscription. Apart from a handful of life subscribers, who had paid a substantial lump sum, the payments were annual. The lefthand column shows the year at which their subscriptions commenced. Full names are given in some cases, but often christian names are omitted or indicated only by initials. The addresses include house numbers in many instances. Those who had served the office of Steward are indicated by a dagger.

1833 – Subscribers to the Last Lays of Thomas Dibdin
The list of patrons and subscribers to ‘The Last Lays of the Last of the Three Dibdins: containing Fifty New Songs, Poems, &c. and One Hundred and Fifty Selections from his Published and Unpublished Productions. By T. Dibdin’, published in 1833, gives surnames, and usually, but not always, initials: and indicates where more than one copy has been bought.

1840-1849 – Prisoners in Durham and Newcastle-upon-Tyne for Contempt of Court
The returns of prisoners imprisoned in Durham County Gaol and Newcastle-upon-Tyne Gaol for contempt of court give full name; when committed; by what authority; cause of committal; and date of discharge.

1917-1918 – Durham University Matriculations
The matriculation roll for Durham University is arranged college by college, unattached, home students and college of medicine. Full names are given, surname first. Michaelmas term 1917, Epiphany and Easter terms 1918.

1946 – Royal Corps of Signals
The Army List for October 1946 lists the 4300 officers of the Royal Corps of Signals by rank and seniority (i.e., the date from which their particular rank was to be reckoned). The names are given as surnames and initials. The many temporary commissions bestowing brevet or higher rank are listed in italics, with date, together with any decorations. In front of the surnames three abbreviations may occur: a bold R, meaning released to unemployment; a crossed-swords symbol for meritorious war service; and a pilcrow, for service without pay and allowances. There are separate sections for retired officers temporarily re-employed, the Territorial Army, and Regular Army Emergency Commissions (including African Colonial, Caribbean, Egypt and Palestine forces), Supplementary Reserve Category B.

Free unlimited search at TheOriginalRecord.com You can purchase sets of scans, or buy open access to the surname(s) of your choice, including variants. For more information, see: www.theoriginalrecord.com

If He’s Not in the Census Index

The following article was written by my good friend, William Dollarhide. Enjoy…

Dollarhide’s Genealogy Rule No. 29: The page on the census where your ancestor’s town was enumerated has no page number.

Name indexes to the U.S. Federal Censuses have become a godsend to genealogists. Beginning in the late 1960s, several private publishers began indexing the censuses. The pioneer publisher was Accelerated Indexing Systems (AIS). Over a period of some twenty-five years, this Utah company indexed all censuses for all states, 1790-1860. AIS first published the census indexes in book form, and later microfiche. Most of them have since been converted to online databases. All but a few of the AIS databases have been redone, first by companies like Heritage Quest, and later by FamilySearch.org, Ancestry.com, and others. The early indexes were often full of mistakes, and genealogists had to devise techniques to work around them.

Indexing Mistakes
Genealogists have learned the hard way that census indexes are often incomplete, or have names misspelled, names missing, or other problems. For example, if you are researching for people named Henry James or James Henry, you will learn to always check for both the surname and given name when looking at census indexes. Names such as these are prone to be reversed. As an example, and in response to our earlier article, “Census Mistakes,” the following was received from a reader:

“After reading your column online, I thought I would write and relate a mistake I found researching my family. I was looking for my great-grandfather and his family in the 1920 census for Washington, DC. I was able to locate his brother, but not my great-grandfather. Having learned where my great-grandfather lived about 1910, I was able to locate them in the 1910 census. But I could not find them in the 1920 census index, although according to the City Directory they did in fact live in DC. With the address from the City Directory and a map of enumeration districts, I finally located my great-grandparents in the 1920 census. It seems that the enumerator had taken my great-grandfather’s name “Meyer Perry” and reversed it to “Perry Meyer.” Thus, his wife “Rebecca Perry” became “Rebecca Meyer,” and so on with their four children (In addition, my great aunt’s name was re-named in the census). Looking up the soundex for “Meyer,” I went back to the index and immediately found the family listed under this name.”

This reader’s example can be repeated by many genealogists who have discovered that an ancestor is not found in a census index, yet the family is clearly in the census schedules. Note that his research involved the use of city directories for the same area where his ancestor lived — which is a good way to confirm whether or not someone resided in an area at about the same time a census was taken. In fact, city directories have proven to be a more complete and more accurate listings of the residents of an area than most census lists. (The best collection of city directories for a location are found at the local public library of that city. See our article, “Old City Directories” for more details). Our reader used another resource to help him find his lost ancestor — a map of the census enumeration districts for 1920. These maps were microfilmed by the National Archives and are available at the Family History Library and other libraries around the country.

The recently opened 1940 federal census schedules, for example, have some valuable finding aids, including maps, ED converters, and lists of city directories, all found at a special website setup by the National Archives just for the 1940 census. See

Spelling Errors in Census Indexes
There are two questions here: what percentage of entries are actually in the index somewhere, and what percentage are entered in spellings reasonable enough for the user to find? Missing persons have been reported to be as high as 20% of all entries in some of the early AIS census indexes, but if one looks at the names of missing persons by using alternate spellings, the error rate may drop to 5% or less. Therefore, a genealogist needs to think of alternate ways a surname can be spelled.

William Thorndale, a professional genealogist who has studied the accuracy of the AIS census indexes in detail, suggests that the accuracy rate is higher than most people think. Thorndale’s excellent essay, “Census Indexes and Spelling Variants,” in The Source: A Guidebook of American Genealogy uses examples of spelling variants that account for most of the so-called missing names. Thorndale said, “A Salt Lake professional once complained to me that the 1800 North Carolina census index was so bad that it missed all of the known Fespermans known to be in the state and listed in the census. It did, but this professional might have thought of looking under Fisperman.” He goes on to say, “If you are looking for Fesperman, simple prudence says you will look under F/Ph/Pf + vowels + s/ss/z/st + p… and if the index puts it under Fisperman, so what?” Let’s see, that means that possible alternates for Fesperman might be Phesperman, Pfesperman, Fistperman, Fasperman, Fosperman, and more.

Thorndale summarized five categories of spelling errors in census indexes as the following:

1. Calligraphic look-alikes: Daniel/David, Nathan/Mathew, Ball/Bell/Boll/Bull, Sanderdale/Lauderdale

2. Phonetic equivalents: Lydecker/Litaker, Myatt/Maillotte, de la Hunte/Dillahunty, Hansel/Ansel, St. Cyr/Sincere, Ratton/Wroughton, Vanlandingham/Flannagen.

3. Translation equivalents: Calbfeisch/Veal, Rubsamen/Turnip seed, Silver/Silber.

4. Truncates: Fitzgerald/Gerald/Jurrell, O’Sullivan/Sully, Haythornthwaite/Haythorn, Strohmaier/Maier, de Villeponteaux/Pontoux.

5. Spelling irregularities: Cowper pronounced Cooper, Coke pronounced Cook, Featherstonhaughs pronounced (so it is said) Fanshaw.

If your ancestor’s name is not in the census index, check the spelling. Think of any way a name can be misspelled. With a name like Dollarhide, I have found 36 different spellings of the name, because of the interchangeability of vowels, double letters, dropped letters, and changing the “d” to a “t”. (Dollarhide/Dollahide, Dalerhide/Dolerhite). I once found the name indexed as “Dotterhide” and decided that the indexer was reading a scratch on the microfilm copy that crossed the two l’s making them look like two crossed t’s. Opening a printed index, I start with Dal, and go through the rest of the vowels (Del, Dil, Dol, Dul). Generally, it will be the interchangeability of the first few letters of a name that will cause the name to be indexed in different places in the alphabetized list.

Using alternate spellings with the early AIS indexes, one can usually get the error rate down to 5% or less. With the Heritage Quest and later indexes, the error rate drops to as low as 1%, due to this company’s extraordinary efforts in checking and rechecking the names for accuracy during the compilation of a master name index. The indexing by FamilySearch.org is state-of-the-art, where there are typically three people involved in every entry, two working independently, and one who rechecks any entries that disagree. And, we have the actual images to look at now, not just the index, and the ability to browse through census locations has made the census more accessible and more accurate that ever before.

Dollarhide’s genealogy rule No. 51: An Irish blessing: May all yer fatters be in the index.