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A Bit About Nicknames

The following article was written by Bryan L. Mulcahy, Reference Librarian at the Fort Myers-Lee County Library, and was reprinted with his permission:

How often have you encountered and individual or family in a census which looks like yours, but the names aren’t quite right? Have you found what appears to be your great-grandfathers marriage license, except that it says he’s married to someone named who went by a different name instead of what you always heard?

Our ancestors’ seemingly changing names often leave us puzzled and frustrated, when in fact such apparent name changes are often just a result of the recording of an individual’s nickname or middle name in the official records. While some think this is a historical trait, in reality, many people today are known by different names to our family, friends, and business associates. My father’s name was Lawrence yet his family always referred to him as Bob. His middle name was Robert.

Nicknames stand for the name of a person or thing other than its proper name. The nickname may either substitute or be added to the proper name. It may be a familiar or truncated form of the proper name, such as Bob, Bobby, Rob, Robbie, Robin, and Bert for Robert. It is common in many genealogical records, especially more informal records such as census records and obituaries, to find your ancestors listed under names you might not expect. In many cases these names may have been the nicknames as they were known to their family and friends.

Nicknames have always been popular, but until the modern era, people generally used whatever variation of their legal given name they felt like using at various times during their life. Legal requirements that govern the processing of how legal papers in modern times were non-existent. Once an ancestor was out on their own, they often adopted a nickname or a variation of their given name.
Nicknames can sometimes be difficult to catch, however. “Kim” as a nickname for “Kimberly” is fairly straightforward, but “Polly” as a nickname for “Mary” and “Peggy” as a nickname for “Margaret” have tripped up many genealogists. Sometimes nicknames were formed by adding a “y” or “ey” to the end of a name or part of a name – i.e. “Johnny” for “John” or “Penny” for “Penelope.” Other times the name was shortened in some manner – i.e. “Kate” for “Katherine.” But sometimes it is just a matter of knowing which nicknames were commonly used in a particular time and place. That’s why it is important, as a genealogist, to familiarize yourself with commonly used nicknames and their corresponding given names. Do not forget, however, that what appears to be a nickname isn’t always – many nicknames became so popular that they later were bestowed as given names.

For further reading, see: Nicknames Past And Present – 5th Edition Revised, by Christine Rose

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Family Roots Publishing Website Adds New Features

We’ve added two important features to the Family Roots Publishing Co. website. They are:

An Advanced Search – Using the Advanced Search, you can now search the database by:

  • Title Only
  • Description Only
  • Item # Only

If you choose to use the Search Box found in the upper left-hand corner of the Home page, your search is across the entire database, including all three above. We’ve found that as the database has grown, that “book title” search results were often buried within a long list of results. So using the title search to find specific books will speed things up dramatically.

The Advanced Search link is found immediately below the Product Search box.

A Wish List – In each product view page there is now a link to “Add to Wishlist” right above every Add to Cart button (Click here for an example, using a Flip-Pal page). If someone who is not logged in clicks that link they will be required to login first. Then the system will add the product to their personal wish list. There is also some text at the top of the wish list page telling the patron how to share their wish list with others and gives the URL to be shared. They can remove an item from the wishlist by simply clicking on the X.

If a patron is logged in, at the bottom of the left navigation menu is a link to “View Wishlist.” By clicking on that link, they can view what they have stored in their personal wishlist.

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The Journey Home Genealogy Irish Blog Continues to Grow

Dwight Radford’s new “The Journey Home Genealogy” Blog continues to grow with all kinds of Irish topics of interest to millions of Americans being posted on a daily basis. Since posting my intitial blog about the site, I’ve continued to post links to the new articles on a daily basis, as this stuff is really good! For a look at a list of the articles by title – with links – click here.

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Ancestry.com Launches New AncestryDNA Service

The following news release was received from Mathew Deighton at Ancestry.com:

Ancestry.com Launches new AncestryDNA Service:
The Next Generation of DNA Science Poised to Enrich Family History Research

Affordable DNA Test Combines Depth of Ancestry.com Family History Database with an Extensive Collection of DNA Samples to Open New Doors to Family Discovery

PROVO, Utah (May 3, 2012) –Ancestry.com (Nasdaq: ACOM), today announced the launch of its highly anticipated AncestryDNA™ service, a new affordable DNA test that enables purchasers of the DNA test and subscribers of Ancestry.com to combine new state-of-the-art DNA science with the world’s largest online family history resource and a broad global database of DNA samples.

The new DNA test analyzes a person’s genome at over 700,000 marker locations, cross referencing an extensive worldwide DNA database with the aim of providing exciting insights into their ethnic backgrounds and helping them find distant cousins who may hold the keys to exciting family history discoveries. By combining these genetic matches with Ancestry.com’s 34 million family trees and 9 billion records, AncestryDNA intends to provide a differentiated experience that helps find common ancestors dating back as far as the middle 18th Century.

“We’ve worked hard at Ancestry.com for more than a year building, testing, and reinventing our approach to genetic genealogy,” said Tim Sullivan, President and Chief Executive Officer of Ancestry.com. “We think AncestryDNA has created a unique and engaging experience that will provide existing Ancestry.com subscribers with an entirely new way to make amazing discoveries about their family history. We are excited to be making AncestryDNA available to loyal Ancestry.com subscribers first…but we look forward to eventually opening up this service to everyone. We think it will allow us to extend our mission to help people discover, preserve, and share their family history to an even greater audience.”

AncestryDNA helps determine geographic and ethnic origins by comparing test-takers’ unique DNA signatures to the DNA of people from across the globe – drawn from the preeminent collection of DNA samples assembled by the Sorenson Molecular Genealogy Foundation. The current version of the test includes 22 worldwide geographical and ethnic categories, including six regions in Europe, five regions in Africa, and Native American.

“We think the newest DNA technology will dramatically change family history research. For the experienced genealogist it will help break down brick walls and for the casual family historian it will make it easier than ever to get started,” said Ken Chahine, Ph.D., J.D. Senior Vice President and General Manager of Ancestry.com DNA, LLC. “While the science is cutting edge, the new online experience is simpler and more intuitive than ever before. We’ve already had overwhelming response and positive feedback from beta users as they discover relatives and uncover the treasures their ancestors passed down through DNA. DNA picks up where the paper trail leaves off. Genomic science can extend family history research into parts of the world where few paper records are available.”

Interest in exploring family history is rising quickly, especially on the scientific front, and that interest extends all the way back to the “old country,” wherever it may be. In fact, 56 percent of Americans recently surveyed by Harris Interactive are interested in taking a DNA genealogy test, up from 42 percent less than a year ago*. What’s more, people’s family history interests reach back beyond arrival in America – nearly two in three respondents told Harris that learning about pre-U.S. family members is one of the most important benefits of researching family history.

Pricing and Availability
Due to very strong early interest and demand, AncestryDNA will initially be made available by invitation-only to Ancestry.com subscribers for $99, with the expectation that the service will be made available to the general public later this year. To learn more about AncestryDNA, or to sign up to be notified once it’s available, please visit www.ancestrydna.com.

In preparing to bring AncestryDNA to market with the best science and a broad set of research assets, AncestryDNA has organized a distinguished and independent Science Advisory Board and has also acquired access to DNA samples, many of which had been assembled by the non-profit Sorenson Molecular Genealogy Foundation. AncestryDNA will be offered through Ancestry.com DNA, LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of Ancestry.com.

Science Advisory Board
With the continued focus on developing a solid DNA platform that stays ahead of the genetic genealogy trends, AncestryDNA has assembled a well-respected Scientific Advisory Board that can advise the company on best practices in the emerging field of DNA and genomic testing. The board consists of:
· Carlos D. Bustamante, Ph.D., Professor, Department of Genetics at Stanford University School of Medicine

· Mark J. Daly, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Medicine Harvard Medical School Center for Human Genetics

· John Novembre, Ph.D., Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Los Angeles

· Jeffrey R. Botkin, M.D., M.P.H., Professor of Pediatrics and Medical Ethics, Associate Vice President for Research, University of Utah

· Philip Awadalla, Ph.D., Director of the CARTaGENE BioBank, Saint Justine Hospital, Montreal, Canada

Addition of DNA Assets from the Sorenson Molecular Genealogy Foundation
In March, Ancestry.com DNA, LLC acquired access to an extensive collection of DNA assets from Sorenson Molecular Genealogy Foundation, a non-profit organization. Founded by molecular genealogy pioneer, James LeVoy Sorenson, this organization has been dedicated to building the world’s foremost collection of DNA samples and corresponding genealogical information. Over the last 12 years, the Sorenson Foundation collected a one-of-a-kind DNA database of tens of thousands of DNA samples with documented family histories in more than 100 countries on six continents. This DNA database gives AncestryDNA test-takers an expanded family history genetic resource, and should enable new levels of discovery about people’s family backgrounds.

Jim Sorensen, President of Sorenson Molecular Genealogy Foundation added, “We are pleased to bring this far reaching, unique DNA collection to AncestryDNA. My father, James L. Sorenson, envisioned creating a genetic map of the peoples of the world that shows relationships shared by the entire human family and with the shared vision and resources of AncestryDNA his legacy will greatly expand. We are confident in the capabilities and dedication of the team to realize the potential of genetic genealogy faster than anyone else in the field. We see this as a great benefit to consumers as well as the scientific community by combining some of the best science with the leader in family history.”

About Ancestry.com
Ancestry.com Inc. (Nasdaq: ACOM) is the world’s largest online family history resource, with more than 1.8 million paying subscribers. More than 9 billion records have been added to the site in the past 15 years. Ancestry users have created more than 34 million family trees containing approximately 4 billion profiles. In addition to its flagship site, Ancestry.com offers several localized Web sites designed to empower people to discover, preserve and share their family history.

About Ancestry.com DNA, LLC
Ancestry.com DNA, LLC is a subsidiary of Ancestry.com Inc. AncestryDNA uses a simple test to analyze an individual’s DNA. AncestryDNA offers the potential of identifying new insights into people’s ancient ancestry to help them collaborate with distant cousins and make even more discoveries in their family history. For more information visit www.ancestrydna.com.

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Erin’s Sons: Irish Arrivals in Atlantic Canada 1761–1853 Volume III

While many Irish found their way to New York and other New England destinations, many landed further north, in Canada. The “Atlantic Canada” region receive a steady flow of immigrants between 1761 and 1853. The region recognized as “Atlantic Canada” includes the provinces of New Foundland and Labrador, Price Edward Island, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia. The records of these early Irish immigrants contained a wealth of information; including, sometimes, details of people in Ireland, some dating to a time before Catholic or state records were kept or are known to have survived. Erin’s sons: Irish Arrivals in Atlantic Canada 1761-1853 Volume III is part of a four volume collection of these early Canadian Irish records.

This four volume set is the compilation of records author and researcher Terrence Punch has transcribed covering Irish arrivals to Atlantic Canada. Information come from passenger lists, census records, newspaper articles, regimental records, church records, prison records, burials, tombstone inscription, and many other records as could be found naming Irish immigrants. Some of these records are difficult to come by. It is surprising how rich a source of information the author has uncovered and included in each volume.

An area of confusion to many studying their Irish ancestry is place names. Civil and church parishes didn’t always geographically match. This volume helps dispel some of the confusion with the inclusion of four hand-drawn maps with listings of place names. The four maps cover County Donegal, County Kilkenny (southern part), and County Waterford (Dunarvan and Ardmore area).

A large part of this volume, about a third, is dedicated to marriage and death information found in newspapers between 1854 and 1858. Another sizable record set of note is for the 97th Regiment, 1827-1853, military records. In all, this volume lists approximately 7,000 Irish-born residents of Atlantic Canada.

Also included in the book are maps showing the areas of peak migration from Ireland to Atlantic Canada, an index of surnames, and an index of ships.

As stated above, this is the third of four reviews in the Erin’s Sons series. Here are links to the reviews for the first two volumes:

Erin’s Sons: Irish Arrivals in Atlantic Canada 1761–1853 Volume I

Erin’s Sons: Irish Arrivals in Atlantic Canada 1761–1853 Volume II

 

Table of Contents

Introduction

Maps: Dingle Peninsula, Co. Kerry; county Monaghan, East Cork

Newspaper Marriages and Deaths of Irish-born, 1854-1858

Shipping News:

  • Irish Ships at Halifax, Nova Scotia, in 1778-1781
  • Irish Passengers in the Brig Speculator, 1815
  • Irish Immigrants Passing through Nova Scotia, 1821-1838
  • Irish Passengers in the Brig Thomas Farrell, 1825
  • Voyage of the Brig Thorney Close, Spring 1847
  • The Brig Mary: Cork-Boston-Halifax-Saint John, 1847
  • Survivors of the Brig Vixen, 1854

Probate Information:

  • Irish Heirs, 1751-1856 (Halifax County, Nova Scotia)
  • Claimants against Estates, Newfoundland, 1813-1815

Marriages:

  • County Kilkenny Marriages in St. Jonh’s, NL, 1815-1827
  • Joggins, NS: St. Thomas Aquinas Church, 1849-1856
  • Halifax, NS: St. Mary’s Cathedral, 1854-1858
  • Dartmouth, NS: St. Peter’s Church, 1830-46; 1851-56

Headstones of Irish in Regional Cemeteries:

  • Nova Scotia
  • New Brunswick
  • Newfoundland (Island)
  • Prince Edward Island

Holy Cross Cemetery, Halifax, NS, 1854-1858 Burials

Camp Hill Public Cemetery, Halifax, NS, 1854-1858 Burials

Military Attrition in Atlantic Canada, 1804-1853:

  • Stray Soldier’s Information, 1804-1824
  • A Deserter, a Runaway and an Alias or Two, 1805-1809
  • How Military Attrition Dispersed Irish-born Soldiers
  • The 97th Regiment, 1827-1853

“A Life Crowded with Incident”; Irish Travails:

  • Irish Rioters at Woodstock, New Brunswick, 1847
  • Murder in the Irish Community, Saint John, NB, 1856

Albert County, New Brunswick, Irish-born in Census of 1851

Some Early Irish Settlers in Western Prince Edward Island

Irish Solidarity in Newfoundland, 1832

Irish-born Petitioners for Land in Nova Scotia, 1804-1840

Wreck of the Dispatch, Isle-aux-Mortes, Newfoundland, 1828

Five New Brunswick Probates

Places of Origin in Nova Scotian Family Histories

An Irish Officer; an interesting man

Index of Ships

Index of Surnames

 

Erin’s sons: Irish Arrivals in Atlantic Canada 1761-1853 Volume III is available from Family Roots Publishing; Item #: GPC4711, Price: $32.34.

 

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New Release in Voices of Genealogy Video Series

We have received the following press release from the National Genealogical Society:

 

David L. Greene, PhD, FASG:

“Becoming a Genealogist”

New Release in Voices of Genealogy Video Series

Arlington, VA, 30 APRIL 2012: In celebration of the 100th anniversary of the National Genealogical Society Quarterly, NGS has created for its members a historical archive of interviews with some of the most distinguished genealogists in the discipline. Among them are the editors of the major US genealogical journals.

The fourth release in the NGS video series Voices of Genealogy presents another editor of a leading genealogical journal: David L. Green, phd, fasg, co-editor of The American Genealogist (TAG).  The American Genealogist, founded by Donald Lines Jacobus, is the country’s oldest independent genealogical journal. In “Becoming a Genealogist” Green tells the story of how he discovered genealogy through his grandmother’s DAR papers and massive lineage charts that looked like “basketball playoffs” groupings.  He describes ancestor hunting trips to the Historical Society of Pennsylvania during grad school as a respite from his dissertation and deciding to subscribe to TAG as a young man.  Inspired to create “good genealogy” after reading journal articles, Greene relates his journey to becoming co-editor of The American Genealogist in 1984 by studying writers like Mary Lovering Holman and her careful explanations of how a conclusion was reached and Milton Rubicam, who he considers may be the best editor in the field of genealogy.  Dr. Green has now continuously co-edited TAG for twenty-eight years.

In a future episode Dr. Greene will describe his own research, notably his studies of the personalities involved in the Salem witch trials.  He recently retired as Professor of English and former Chair of the Division of Humanities at Piedmont College, Demorest, Georgia.

The video was produced by award winning filmmakers Kate Geis and Allen Moore from an interview by Melinde Lutz Byrne, CG, FASG, co-editor of the National Genealogical Society Quarterly. David L. Green, phd, FASG, “Becoming a Genealogist,” is now playing for all NGS members at http://www.ngsgenealogy.org.

Video interviews represent just one of the many opportunities NGS offers its members for becoming successful genealogists. Members receive the society’s outstanding publications, The National Genealogical Society Quarterly and the NGS Magazine, and can also take advantage of free courses and significant discounts on publications, courses, and the NGS annual conference to be staged in Cincinnati 9–12 May 2012 and in Las Vegas 8–11 May 2013.

Founded in 1903, the National Genealogical Society is dedicated to genealogy education, high research standards, and the preservation of genealogical records.  The Arlington, Virginia-based nonprofit is the premier national society for everyone, from the beginner to the most advanced family historian, seeking excellence in publications, educational offerings, research guidance, and opportunities to interact with other genealogists.

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An Atlas of Appalachian Trails to the Ohio River

Standing between many of the early American colonies and the majority of the continent were the Appalachians. The entire mountainous region was thick with tree and undergrowth, hillsides and rivers, breached only by the game trails of buffalo and game. These buffalo trails were used by both the Indians and early settlers alike. Settlers like trappers, hunters, traders and cattlemen crisscrossed the isolated region along these often difficult trails. Overtime, these trails were widened time and again, to accommodate humans, horses, and eventually wagons as settlers sought to expand ever westward. An Atlas of Appalachian Trails to the Ohio River, by Carrie Eldridge, shows the location of little known trails as well as the major routes which passed through Virginia during those early expansion years.

Along these routes grew towns and communities. Only four major routes crossed the Appalachians from the eastern seaboard to the Ohio River. But, the area spread out along minor routes and eventually many of the major and minor routes became state and interstate highways. With so few routes and so many settlers, this Atlas potentially offers a wealth of research information to the town names and routes one’s ancestors may have used to move out west.

At 11″ x 17″ this Atlas offers maps at a size which are easy to read. Mixed with the maps are an extensive background to the early settlers, their migrations, and the importance of these towns and trails. With two columns per text page, each the size of a standard page, this book is the equivalent to a book twice as thick. Below are the Table of Contents followed by a listing of the Maps and Illustrations in the order in which they appear in the book.

 

Table of Contents

Introduction

Early English Settlements

The Physical Barrier

A Road System to Communicate

The First English Highway

Original Trails on the Frontier

  • Buffalo Trails and Indian Paths
  • Traders Trails
  • Routes of the Fur Trade

The Moveable English Frontier

  • The Frontier in New England
  • A Southern Frontier

Building a Road System

  • The First Obstacle – The Fall Line
  • The Carolina Road (Upper Road-Rogues Road)
  • The Great Wagon Road
  • Trails East of the Mountains

War on the Frontier

  • The Road of War
  • Aftermath of the French and Indian War

Attaching the Mountains

  • Settlers Fill the Valleys and Cross the Ridges
  • Revolution and the West

Eastern Virginia Meets the Valley

Kentucky Country

Ohio on the Other Side 1785-1795

Trails on Highway and Turnpikes

  • Trails to the Forks of the Ohio
  • Central Virginia Trails
  • Trails of Kentucky

Turnpike Life

The Continent is Open

Bibliography

 

Maps and Illustrations

Figure A. Western Trails of Virginia

Figure 1. Physical Regions of the East Coast

Figure 2. King’s Highway

Figure 3. Early Indian Trails

Figure 4. Trails East of the Mountains

Figure 5. Trails at the Time of the French and Indian War

Figure 6. Military Roads of the French and Indian War

Figure 7. Frontier Defenses 1755-1760

Figure 8. Frontier Trails 1766-1776

Figure 9. Virginia’s Blue Ridge Gaps

Figure 10. Kentucky Settlement Area

Figure 11. Kentucky & Tennessee Pioneer Trails

Figure 12. Ohio’s Lands

Figure 13. Roads to the Ohio by 1800

Figure 14. The Ohio Company Trek

Figure 15. The Travels of Levi Van Hoose & Family

Figure 16. Virginia Fortifications 1769-1787

Appendix A – The Travels of Settlers Levi Van Hoose & Family

Appendix B – Western Virginian Blockhouses, Stockades, and Forts of the Revolutionary War Period

 

Order a copy of An Atlas of Appalachian Trails to the Ohio River from Family Roots Publishing; Item #: CE01, Price: $19.60.

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Urban Anthropology, Inc. is Offering Free Research to Milwaukee Residents

Urban Anthropology, Inc., a Milwaukee based group “dedicated to the celebration of cultural diversity and a holistic approach to urban problem-solving,” is offering free genealogical research. The service is free of charge to Milwaukee residents.

The organization will provide research for ancestors who lived in the United Sates. To start, the recipient must fill out a form, providing your name, parents’ names and grandparents’ names. Research takes about two weeks. The form is available at 707 W. Lincoln Ave.

Sources:

BayViewCompass.com

Urban Anthropology, Inc.

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Salt Lake Christmas Tour…………. Week’s Peek

One of our tour family, Maureen MacDonald, lives across Washington state from me and so we manage to rendezvous every now and then.  She drove east from Whidbey Island (picking up Sharon Fowler, another member of our tour family) to come stay with me and attend our FamilySearch Symposium on Saturday, 28 April last. We had a great learning day at the Symposium, but we had “girls’ fun” on the evening before eating ice cream out of Dixie cups and watching WDYTYA.  The next evening we sat around my dining room table and made elastic-stretchy bead bracelets. My goal is to have 100 made to bring to the Tour to give to each of you. The creativity was flowing!

Chatting with Maureen, she told me that Leland has asked her to do four presentations at the 2012 Christmas tour and she’s working already to plan these sessions for you. We talked and we decided that a “Starting Fresh Or Starting Over” theme would be of benefit to our tour family.  Maureen has some new and innovating ways to present the solid concepts of beginning genealogy. Another plus for coming on the tour this year!

And did you realize that we will not only have Thomas MacEntee again but Leland has signed on Lisa Alzo to be a teacher and presenter to us. Lisa specializes and Eastern European subjects as well as technology. A second big plus for coming to Salt Lake with the group!

I’m going to be at NGS in Cincinnati next week………… hope to see a good many of you all!

Donna, aka Mother Hen, until next week.

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Applications for Enrollment of Creek Newborn Act of 1905

The Dawes Act of 1887 provided for the division of Indian lands to individual tribal members. This was an attempt to integrate the Indians into American society. The Five Civilized Tribes (Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and Seminole) were excluded from the treaty. However, later efforts were made to garner their participation. The Curtis Act of 1898 required tribal population rolls, effectively a census, be compiled or recreated for each tribe. Tribal leadership resisted this effort until 1905. The Dawes Commission sent representatives to seven Creek Nation towns to collect names and affidavits for “newborns” making them citizens of the Creeks. Any children added to the rolls by May 2, 1905 would not be considered citizens of the Creek nation and thus eligible for a share of land. Applications for Enrollment of Creek Newborn Act of 1905 Volume I, by Jeff Bowen, contains transcriptions of these records.

The results of the Dawes Commission was the eventual break up of the Five Civilized Tribes as social units. Parcels of land were distributed to individuals based on their level Indian blood, age, and family status. Children, “Newborns,” would receive 40 acres of tribal lands.

2,410 child applications were submitted by the deadline. Bowen’s transcriptions include all correspondence associated with the 1,171 successful Creek claimants. Each volume contains approximately 100 “newborns,” their parents, doctors, lawyers, midwives, and other Creek relatives. In all, about 2,000 Creek connections appear in this first volume.

“Newborn” were any Creek child age four or younger living within a qualified Creek (or other tribal) household, and was not an orphan.

 

Applications for Enrollment of Creek Newborn Act of 1905 Volume I is available from Family Roots Publishing; Item #: CF9805, Price: $35.28.

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Next on Who do You Think You Are

There will be an all new episode of “Who Do You Think You Are,” airing this Friday, May 4, 8/7 central.

This week will feature actress Rashida Jones. “Rashida has starred in such films as ‘The Muppets,’ ‘Our Idiot Brother,’ ‘I Love You, Man’ and ‘The Social Network.'”

In this episode “Rashida Jones uncovers her maternal family history from Manhattan to Eastern Europe and uncovers the answers to her grandmother’s missing years.”

Click here to watch a preview.

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Erin’s Sons: Irish Arrivals in Atlantic Canada 1761–1853 Volume II

While many Irish found their way to New York and other New England destinations, many landed further north, in Canada. The “Atlantic Canada” region receive a steady flow of immigrants between 1761 and 1853. The region recognized as “Atlantic Canada” includes the provinces of New Foundland and Labrador, Price Edward Island, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia. The records of these early Irish immigrants contained a wealth of information; including, sometimes, details of people in Ireland, some dating to a time before Catholic or state records were kept or are known to have survived. Erin’s sons: Irish Arrivals in Atlantic Canada 1761-1853 Volume II is part of a four volume collection of these early Canadian Irish records.

Author and researcher Terrence Punch has transcribed records covering Irish arrivals to Atlantic Canada from passenger lists, census records, newspaper articles, regimental records, church records, prison records, burials, tombstone inscription, and many other records as could be found naming Irish immigrants. Some of these records are difficult to come by. It is surprising how rich a source of information the author has uncovered and included in this volume.

An area of confusion to many studying their Irish ancestry is place names. Civil and church parishes didn’t always geographically match. This volume helps dispel some of the confusion with the inclusion of four hand-drawn maps with listings of place names. The four maps cover County Donegal, County Kilkenny (southern part), and County Waterford (Dunarvan and Ardmore area).

The largest portion of this book, about 65 of the 191 pages, covers Newspaper Marriages and Deaths of Irish-Born, 1780-1853. The rest of volume covers areas and records as previous listed. Below is listed the complete contents.

 

Contents

Introduction

Melancholy Shipwreck, 1833

Irish Place Names as a Source of confusion

Newspaper Marriages and Deaths of Irish-born, 1780-1853

Obituary for one of the Duke of Wellington’s Soldiers, 1855

A chapter in the Story of the “Potato Famine” of 1847, and its Sequel

Burials of Irish-born, Holy Cross Cemetery, Halifax, Nova Scotia, 1843-1853

Burials of Irish0born, St. Malachy’s Church, Saint John, New Brunswick, 1821-1832

Burials in Camp Hill Public Cemetery, Halifax, Nova Scotia, 1844-1853

Irish Headstones in Regional Cemeteries:

  • Nova Scotia
  • Newfoundland
  • New Brunswick

Irish in Church Burial Registers in Nova Scotia Communities

Irish in the Township Book of

  • Aylesford, Kings County, Nova Scotia
  • Douglas, Hants County, Nova Scotia

Soldiers of the 52nd Regiment in the Region, 1824-1839

irish Deserters in Nova Scotia, 1803-1808

Cumberland county, Nova Scotia: Settlers from Ireland

“Jolly Irish Minors” at Herring Cove, Nova Scotia, 1827

Irish-born Admitted to the Halifax Poor House, 1773-1780

Irish Catholic Weddings, Saint John, New Brunswick, 1821-1837

One Marriage That Wasn’t, Saint John, New Brunswick, 1832

Richibucto, New Brunswick, Marriages, 1826-1828

St.-Louis-de-Kent, New Brunswick, 1824-1829

Shemogue, New Brunswick, Marriages, 1830-1831

Fredericton/Ste-Anne Area, New Brunswick, Marriages, 1818-1826

St. Mary’s  Cathedral, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Irish Marriages, 1845-1853

Early Newfoundland Appearances of Irish People:

  • Claimants to Estates, 1810-1840
  • Irish Runaways & Deserters, 1810-1838
  • Irish Passengers, 1809-1816
  • Mother Seeking Her Son, 1832
  • Inquest in 1815
  • Inquiry, 1831

Irish Convicts to Newfoundland, 1789

Some Early Irish-born Clergy in the Region before 1853

Three Brides from Ireland, 1831: Pandora Brought Them

An Indenture Document: Nancy Tobin, 1758

Assisting the Transient Poor, Nova Scotia, 1819-1861

Famine Relief: Prince Edward Island to County Monaghan, 1847

Index of Surnames

Index of Ships

 

Erin’s sons: Irish Arrivals in Atlantic Canada 1761-1853 Volume II is available from Family Roots Publishing; Item #: GPC4709, Price: $32.34.

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The 1752 Calendar Change in British North America

The following article was written by my friend, Bill Dollarhide:

If you have evidence that a man had died ten months before a certain child was born, it would seem to exclude that man as the potential father of that child. But, if the calendar dates changed during the man’s life, it would be necessary to be very precise in determining the exact date of death — and he may qualify as the potential father after all. Therefore, an understanding of the change from the Julian Calendar to the Gregorian Calendar is important to genealogists.

If you had ancestors living under British rule in 1752 you need to be aware of the calendar change that took place that year. The dates you may find on documents around 1752 and later may be different than what you might expect — in fact, you may discover that a date was off by several months.

By an act of Parliament, the British Government adopted the Gregorian Calendar effective September 1752, and the change was implemented in all of the British colonies in North America and elsewhere. The United Kingdom of Great Britain was one of the later European countries to adopt the calendar change, which had been in place in parts of Europe for 170 years. The last two European countries to adopt the Gregorian Calendar were Russia in 1918 and Greece in 1923.

In 1582, Pope Gregory XIII decreed that the new calendar would be followed thereafter, and the change took place in all of the Catholic countries of Europe. The Protestant countries of Europe did not go along with Pope Gregory’s decree in 1582. The lowland states of Rhineland-Pfalz (now Germany), Belgium (then part of Holland), and the northern German states, for example, were made up of a majority of Protestant Palatines, Calvinists, or Lutherans. These groups did not adopt the Gregorian Calendar until 1700.

1582 Changes — Julian to Gregorian Calendar
There were three (3) significant calendar changes that took place in 1582 as a result of Pope Gregory XIII’s decree:

1. Drop 10 days from October 1582, to realign the Vernal Equinox with March 21st. The Julian Calendar, first adopted by Julius Caesar for the Roman Empire in 45 BC, had an annual error factor of .00636 days. From 45 BC to 1582 AD, the correct day of the Vernal Equinox using the Julian Calendar fell behind by a full ten days. Since the equinox was tied to the celebration of Easter, the Roman Catholic Church found the error undesirable.

2. Reduce the number of possible leap years. In the Julian Calendar, a leap year occurred every four years without exception. By reducing the number of leap years, the Gregorian Calendar was able to
more closely align the Vernal Equinox over centuries. The change was to make leap years for years ending in “00,” but only if the number could be divided evenly by 400. The year 2000 was a leap year (2000/400=5), while the year 1900 was not (1900/400=4.75). The reduction of leap years in the new Gregorian Calendar was all that was needed to correct the annual error factor in the Julian Calendar.
There was no change to the number of months or the number of days per month.

3. Change the first day of the year from March 25th to January 1st. This was the most dramatic change from the Julian to Gregorian Calendar, and the change that impacted genealogical dating the most. Traditionally, the new year was determined by the beginning of the four seasons, and through several centuries, the first day of Spring in the Julian Calendar was on or about March 25th.

The British Adopt the New Calendar
By the time the British finally adopted the new calendar in 1752, the correction needed to bring the Vernal Equinox back in alignment was 11 days. Britain’s Parliament chose to drop 11 days from the month of September 1752. They also declared that the first day of 1753 would be January 1st, making the English year of 1752 its shortest in history, only 280 days long. The British calendar for September 1752 appeared as follows:

George Washington’s Birthday
Today, we use the Gregorian Calendar to determine George Washington’s birthday, which took place in Westmoreland County, Virginia on 22 Feb 1732. But at the time of his birth the Julian Calendar was in effect, and the first day of the year was March 25th, not January 1st, so he was born 22 Feb 1731. His mother, Mary Ball Washington, lived her entire life believing her son was born on 22 Feb 1731. (She lived to see her son’s inauguration as President of the United States in April 1789, but died later that year).

OS, NS & Double Dating
Right after the calendar change took place in British territory, people began writing dates between January 1st and March 25th different ways, reflecting the Old Style (OS) and the New Style (NS). Genealogists may find evidence of these different styles in old records from September 1752 forward. For example, a Philadelphia lawyer could have indicated a date three (3) different ways in letters or documents written after September 1752. 1) He could have written, “February 22, 1753/4” (double dating); or 2), he could have written, “February 22, 1753” OS”; or 3), he could have written, “February 22, 1754 NS” All three styles appeared in various documents for a few years after the calendar change, but the most common use was for double dating, i.e., “1753/4,” indicating the situation of a date between January 1st and March 25th. Double-dating has become the standard style used in genealogy dating.

Any pre-1752 date between January 1st and March 24th, inclusive, should be expressed as a double date. The authors of the documents did not do it for you in most cases. There may have been some anticipation of the calendar change in the British North America before 1752, but in most cases, finding a date written as 22 February 1731/2 is rare. What was written was the Julian date of 22 February 1731.

Check the Julian Dates!
For genealogists researching in British North American records before 1752, any date found on a document and dated January 1st through March 24th is one year off. Let’s say you find a will for your great-great-great-grandfather, dated 12 March 1734. But by being a good genealogist, you find another will, or codicil, which changes the first will. Your ancestor left two documents, one which gave everything to his five sons. But the second document was dated 27 March 1735, and you think you have learned that your ancestor died after the second document was signed, or about a year after the first will. The fact is, the documents were signed only 15 days apart. The 12 March 1734 document was signed before the first of the new year, which occurred on March 25th. So, March 27th was in 1735, but only 15 days later than March 12, 1734.

In the Julian Calendar, March 24, 1734 was followed by March 25, 1735. March was also identified as the First Month. Depending on the time and place, a day/month/year date in the Julian Calendar was expressed in various ways, including:
● 3 March 1734
● March 3, 1734
● 1st mo. – 3rd day – 1734
● 3rd day – 1st mo. – 1734.

It is even possible to find such obscure Julian dates written as, 7ber 1734 or 8ber 1734 (for September and October). The Latin names for some months relate to their position in the Julian Calendar not the Gregorian Calendar. Thus October, which is a word based on the Latin number eight (octo) makes sense in the old Julian Calendar, but not in the current one, where October is the 10th month.

Exceptions in North America
Genealogist should be aware that certain groups in early America may have adopted the Gregorian Calendar before 1752, and even in British controlled territory. Thus, when a Reformed, Palatine, or Lutheran Church record in a German settlement in America is used for genealogical research, the date needs to be confirmed — were those Germans using the Gregorian Calendar or Julian Calendar? For example, the Protestant Palatine Germans had adopted the Gregorian Calendar in 1700, well before their migration to America.

In addition, the Dutch settlers along the Hudson River in New York and northern New Jersey were already using the Gregorian Calendar when they first came to America in the 1620s. After 1660, when the English took over the Dutch colonies, the Dutch people were allowed to stay and keep their way of life. Civil and church recorders of the Dutch towns continued the use of the Gregorian Calendar, even though the British governed their settlements and had not adopted the Gregorian Calendar yet. Since most of Holland had been using the new Calendar since 1583, it had become their standard for calendar dating long before they came to America.

Quaker Dates
The English Quakers who migrated to the Delaware Valley from about 1675 to 1725, left good indications of the Julian Calendar in their meeting records. In keeping with the Quaker’s desire to divest themselves of any practice of the Church of England, they did not like to use the names of the months (of which some were named after pagan gods by the Romans). So the Quakers standardized their own way of expressing a month, as the 1st month, 2nd month, 3rd month, and so on.

In early written Quaker Meeting Records, a date was commonly shown in the order of year, month, and day, e.g., 1732, 3rd mo, 24th day. After the change to the Gregorian Calendar, Quaker meeting records were more often shown in the order of day, month, and year, e.g., 25th day, 2nd mo. 1830.

Any Quaker date will include a reference to a month by its numbered position. If the date was before September 1752, Genealogists must count the months in the Julian Calendar, not the Gregorian, e.g., 1746, 3rd mo, 28th day, would translate to 28 May 1746 in the Julian Calendar. After September 1752, the Quakers, like other Americans, began writing their dates based on the Gregorian Calendar, but adding double dates for the year, e.g., 22nd day, 3rd month, 1755/6, which would be the same as 22 March 1756.

In some cases, questions about whether a Quaker date is Julian or Gregorian needs to be confirmed by looking at many dates recorded in the same record book. For example, if a genealogist finds a Quaker date expressed as the 7th month, 31st day, you would know that it refers to July, the 7th month in the Gregorian Calendar, which indeed has 31 days; while an indication of the 7th month in the Julian Calendar would represent the month of September, a month with 30 days.

The following is an example of original minutes from an 1830 New Garden Friends Meeting, Columbiana County, Ohio, now located at the Swarthmore College Historical Library, Swarthmore, PA:



What about Alaska?

In 1867, financial struggles led Russia to sell Russian America (Alaska) to the United States. The treaty was approved by Congress on 9 April 1867, and the United States flag was raised on 18 October 1867 (now called Alaska Day, a legal state holiday).

While the United States and most of Europe recognized the Gregorian Calendar, Russia had still not made the change in 1867. On the day Alaska became part of the U.S., the change from the Julian Calendar to the Gregorian Calendar caused Alaska residents to have Friday, October 6, 1867 followed by Friday, October 18, 1867. They also had their shortest year. In 1867, Alaska’s year began on March 25th and ended on December 31st. In 1867, the correction needed to make the change was 13 days, but Alaska managed to do it in 12 days (by moving the International Date Line beyond the Aleutian Islands).

For Additional Reading, see:

The Researcher’s Guide to American Genealogy, by Val Greenwood

Our Quaker Ancestors; by Ellen and David Berry

The German Research Companion, Third Edition, by Shirley J. Riemer, Roger P. Minert & Jennifer A. Anderson

A Diary of the Dutch Reformed Church of West New Hempstead [New York]; by B. Martha Slatery Erickson, Church Historian

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SCGS Jamboree Early-Bird Registration Discount Deadline is Monday, April 30

ACT NOW! The early-bird registration discount deadline is Monday, April 30.

The 43rd Annual Southern California Genealogy Jamboree will be held at the Los Angeles Marriott Burbank Airport Hotel on Friday through Sunday, June 8th to 10th, 2012. Separate events, the full-day Family History Writers Conference and Tech Track computer classes, will be held on Thursday, June 7. Jamboree is one of the most popular genealogical events in the United States. The conference features over 100 lecture classes, 70+ commercial vendors, societies and heritage groups and other organizations in the exhibit floor, and several special events and opportunities to socialize and relax. Free sessions will be held for beginning genealogists, librarians, and genealogical society leaders. Additional discounts for SCGS members. The cutoff for registration is May 28; walk-ins are welcome. You won’t want to miss the Friday night Hollywood Gala!

Southern California Genealogy Jamboree
www.genealogyjamboree.com
June 8-10, 2012
Burbank, California
jamboree@scgsgenealogy.com

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Erin’s Sons: Irish Arrivals in Atlantic Canada 1761–1853 Volume I

While many Irish found their way to New York and other New England destinations, many landed further north, in Canada. The “Atlantic Canada” region receive a steady flow of immigrants between 1761 and 1853. The region recognized as “Atlantic Canada” includes the provinces of New Foundland and Labrador, Price Edward Island, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia. The records of these early Irish immigrants contained a wealth of information; including, sometimes, details of people in Ireland, some dating to a time before Catholic or state records were kept or are known to have survived. Erin’s sons: Irish Arrivals in Atlantic Canada 1761-1853 is a four volume collection of these early Canadian Irish records.

Author and researcher Terrence Punch has transcribed records covering Irish arrivals to Atlantic Canada from passenger lists, census records, newspaper articles, regimental records, church records, prison records, burials, tombstone inscription, and many other records as could be found naming Irish immigrants. This book is the first volume in the series of four. Following are the contents of this volume.

 

Contents

Introduction and Maps

Erin’s Sons Come to Atlantic Canada

  1. Ulster Scots to Nova Scotia in 1761
  2. The Polly: Seeking United Irishmen, 1799
  3. Irish Immigrant Burials, Halifax, Nova Scotia, 1800–1842
  4. The Irish-born in New Brunswick, 1851
  5. Military Attrition in British America:
    1. St. Anselm’s Catholic, Chezzetcook, 1821-1832
    2. Our Lady of Mount Carmel, Prospect, 1823-1830
    3. St. Gregory’s Catholic, Liverpool, 1832-1833
    4. St. Peter’s Catholic, Dartmouth, 1830-1852
  6. Cape Breton Census of 1818: The Irish
  7. Irish People in the Cape Breton Land Papers, 1794 to 1839
  8. Cumberland: A Partly Reconstituted Passenger List, 1827
  9. Appreciative Passengers, 1828-1846
  10. Persons Sought Advertisements, 1831-1841
  11. County Derry to Newfoundland, 1834/1835
  12. Charitable Irish Society Membership, Halifax, Nova Scotia, 1834-1837
  13. Irish Repealers in the Maritimes, 1843-1845:
    1. Halifax, Novia Scotia, 1843
    2. Prince Edward Island, 1843-1844
    3. Sydney, Cape Breton, 1834-1844
    4. Bathurst, New Brunswick, 1843
    5. Dartmouth, Novia Scotia, 1845
  14. Fortunes of Sea Travel from Ireland, 1816-1852
  15. Military Attrition in British America:
    1. 101st Regiment, 1807-1809
    2. 74th Regiment, 1818-1826
    3. 52nd Regiment, 1779-1833
  16. Township Book, Liverpool, Nova Scotia: Irish Married, 1779-1833
  17. Transfers from the Irish Brigade to the Royal Nova Scotia Regiment, 1798
  18. Irish Immigrant Weddings, St. Peter’s Catholic, Halifax, Nova Scotia, 1809-1820
  19. Irish People Married in Newfoundland, 1793-1828
  20. Eight Irish Headstones in Newfoundland
  21. Irish Convicts for Newfoundland, 1788-1789
  22. Irish-born, Nova Scotia Census of 1770

Bibliography

Index of Surnames

Index of Ships

 

Erin’s sons: Irish Arrivals in Atlantic Canada 1761-1853 is available from Family Roots Publishing; Item #: GPC4708, Price: $32.34.

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