For Canadians Only! – MyHeritage DNA Kits – Only $69 (USD) Through July 5

For Canadians Only!

MyHeritage is running a Canada Day promo on their Autosomal DNA test – cutting the price to just $69 until July 5. That’s again the best price that they’ve ever offered. Order 3 kits or more, and they add free shipping. Click on this link.

Note that Americans clicking on the links will be redirected to the current $79 sale price offered by MyHeritage.

MyHeritage DNA is the perfect gift for yourself and the people you love, now at the lowest price ever offered. By testing more relatives, you can learn more about yourself and determine whether your DNA matches are maternal or paternal.

All it takes is a few minutes and a gentle swab of the cheek to obtain the DNA sample that you mail back to the MyHeritage DNA lab. Within 4-5 weeks, DNA analysis will be complete, and you’ll be able to view the results online at MyHeritage.

DNA testing is the perfect way to celebrate Canada Day!

Mother and Adopted Daughter Meet For the First Time!

Robin never forgot the daughter she gave birth to at the age of 15. She’d counted the baby’s fingers and toes. The girl was perfect — and she never saw her again.

Becky wanted to find her birth mother from the time she discovered she’d been adopted. She wanted to know where she came from.

Becky was engaged when she took a MyHeritage DNA test, with her fiancé’s support, to learn of her heritage.

Robin had her DNA tested as a part of a family history project.

View the following video by clicking on the illustration to learn their story:

Following are links to blogs I’ve done in the past about their DNA test:

Canadians! Click here to order your MyHeritage DNA test for only $69 (USD) today!

By the way, I get matches to new cousins every few days from my MyHeritage DNA testing that I had done last February. On March 28, I had 1; on April 2, I had 1; April 10, I had 4; April 14, I had 2, April 30, I had 2; May 7, I had 3; May 9, I had 1; May 14, I had 1; May 21, I had 3; May 28, I had 5; June 4, I had 3; June 11, I had 1; and on June 18, I got 4. I can’t keep up!

If you have tested your DNA with other autosomal DNA test providers than MyHeritage DNA, you can easily upload the DNA raw data file to to get a comprehensive Ethnicity Estimate and DNA Matches. It’s entirely free, and you will find more relatives! Click here to Upload your DNA data to MyHeritage and enjoy free DNA Matching and Ethnicity Estimates.

Please note – I have an affiliate relationship with MyHeritage and MyHeritage DNA. I receive a small portion of any sales made by my readers clicking on the above links, and purchasing.

Map Guide To German Parish Registers Vol. 57 – Cities of Bremen, Lübeck & Kiel – now shipping

It’s been nearly a year since Family Roots Publishing produced a new German Map Guide. We’re now working on big-city volumes and honestly, they are harder to produce than the volumes for rural areas. The author is also spending a lot of time on the Map Guide to Swiss Parish Registers series.

In the last few days, we shipped the all copies of the Map Guide To German Parish Registers Vol. 57 – Cities of Bremen, Lübeck and Kiel, by Kevan Hansen. This volume is made up of three large German cities. They are: Free and Hanseatic City of Bremen, the Free and Hanseatic City of Lübeck and the City of Kiel, Schleswig-Holstein, Prussia. Included are 128 historic stadtteile, or city sections, found in Bremen and Lübeck (see list below). Written in English by Kevan Hansen, this volume was principally written to help family historians resolve where their family may have gone to church – and left vital records behind that may be seen today. This is the fifty-seventh of a series covering all of Germany. These places are as of about 1870 to 1900. The Cities of Bremen, Lübeck and Kiel Map Guide is different than the others, in that totally different techniques are needed to locate in which church your ancestors may have worshipped when doing big city research.

To order your copy of Map Guide To German Parish Registers Vol. 57 – Cities of Bremen, Lübeck and Kiel, click on the link – or on the illustration.

This volume is also available in hard cover.Click here to order the volume in hard cover.

The final volumes of the Map Guide to German Parish Registers series (Vol. 56 on) all deal with the large and free cities of the German Empire. The cities books will be published as time permits in 2017 through 2018. We expect to produce another 5 books in the series

The following is from the Table of Contents of Volume 57:

  • Introduction
  • Historical Background of the Free City of Bremen
  • Overview Map of the Free City of Bremen Area
  • Free City of Hamburg Civil Registration
  • Bremen Parish Registers
  • Map and Key to Amtsgericht Bremen Lutheran Parishes
  • Map and Key to City of Bremen Lutheran Parishes
  • Bremen Lutheran Parishes
  • Additional Churches – Bremen
  • Bremen – Minority Religions
  • Using City Directories to Find the Street Reference
  • 1900 Bremen Parish Street Index – by Street
  • Bremen Reverse Parish Street Index – by Church
  • Other Bremen Genealogical Resources
  • The Free and Hanseatic City of Lübeck
  • Historical Background of the Free City of Lübeck
  • Lübeck Parish Registers
  • Map and Key to Amtsgericht Lübeck Lutheran Parishes
  • Map and Key to the Free City of Lübeck Lutheran Parishes
  • Lübeck Lutheran Parish Listings
  • Lübeck Minority Religions
  • Using City Directories to Find the Street Reference
  • 1900 Lübeck Parish Street Index – by Street
  • Lübeck Reverse Parish Street Index – by church
  • Other Lübeck Genealogical Resources
  • The City of Kiel, Schleswig-Holstein, Prussia
  • Historical Background of the Free City of Kiel
  • Kiel Parish Registers
  • Map and Key to the City of Kiel Lutheran Parishes
  • Kiel Lutheran Parish Listings
  • Using City Directories to Find the Street Reference
  • 1900 Kiel Parish Street Index – by Street
  • Kiel Reverse Parish Street Index – by Church
  • Other Kiel Genealogical Resources
  • Bremen Town Index
  • Lübeck Town Index

The following historic stadtteil (city sections) are found in this volume.

  • Albsfelde Lübeck
  • Arsten Bremen
  • Auf dem Rüten Bremen
  • Auf der Heide Bremen
  • Baumsberg Lübeck
  • Behlendorf Lübeck
  • Beidendorf Lübeck
  • Blankensee Lübeck
  • Blockdiel Bremen
  • Borgfeld Bremen
  • Brandenbaum Lübeck
  • Bremen Bremen
  • Bremerhaven Bremen
  • Brodten Lübeck
  • Büren Bremen
  • Burg Bremen
  • Büssau Lübeck
  • Curau Lübeck
  • Dissau Lübeck
  • Düchelsdorf Lübeck
  • Dummersdorf Lübeck
  • Ellen Bremen
  • Evershof Lübeck
  • Fackenburg Lübeck
  • Falkenhusen Lübeck
  • Genin Lübeck
  • Giesensdorf Lübeck
  • Gneversdorf Lübeck
  • Gothmund Lübeck
  • Grambke Bremen
  • Gröpelingen Bremen
  • Gross Dunge Bremen
  • Gross Schretstaken Lübeck
  • Habenhausen Bremen
  • Harmsdorf Lübeck
  • Hasenbüren Bremen
  • Hastedt Bremen
  • Herrenwyk Lübeck
  • Herrnburg Lübeck
  • Hilgeskamp Bremen
  • Hodenberg Bremen
  • Hodenberg Bremen
  • Hohweg Bremen
  • Hollenbeck Lübeck
  • Hollerdeich Bremen
  • Horn Bremen
  • Huchting Bremen
  • Hünengraber Lübeck
  • Israeldorf Lübeck
  • Ivendorf Lübeck
  • Karlshof Lübeck
  • Kattenesch Bremen
  • Kattrepel Bremen
  • Kiel Kiel
  • Klein Dunge Bremen
  • Klein Schretstaken Lübeck
  • Krempeldorf Lübeck
  • Kronsforde Lübeck
  • Krumbeck Lübeck
  • Lankenau Bremen
  • Lehe Bremen
  • Lehesterdeich Bremen
  • Lewenbüren Bremen
  • Lsumbrok Bremen
  • Lübeck Lübeck
  • Malkendorf Lübeck
  • Marienthal Lübeck
  • Mittelsbüren Bremen
  • Moisling Lübeck
  • Monkhof Lübeck
  • Mühlenfeld Bremen
  • Neuenland Bremen
  • Neuhof Lübeck
  • Nieder Blockland Bremen
  • Niederbüren Bremen
  • Niemark Lübeck
  • Niendorf Lübeck
  • Nienhausen Lübeck
  • Nüsse Lübeck
  • Ober Blockland Bremen
  • Oberneuland Bremen
  • Oberneuland‑Rockwinkel Bremen
  • Oslebshausen Bremen
  • Osterholz Bremen
  • Ostfeuerberg Bremen
  • Padelügge Lübeck
  • Poggensee Lübeck
  • Pöppendorf Lübeck
  • Rablinghausen Bremen
  • Reecke Lübeck
  • Reeckerheide Lübeck
  • Ritzerau Lübeck
  • Rockwinkel Bremen
  • Roggenhorst Lübeck
  • Rönnau Lübeck
  • Rothebeck Lübeck
  • Schattin Lübeck
  • Schevemoor Bremen
  • Schlutup Lübeck
  • Schönböck Lübeck
  • Sebaldsbrück Bremen
  • Seehausen Bremen
  • Siems Lübeck
  • Sierksrade Lübeck
  • Steffensweg Bremen
  • Steinruder Hof Lübeck
  • Strecknitz Lübeck
  • Strom Bremen
  • Strömerdeich Bremen
  • Struckenberg Bremen
  • Teutendorf Lübeck
  • Timmersloh Bremen
  • Tramm Lübeck
  • Travemünde Lübeck
  • Utbremen Bremen
  • Utecht Lübeck
  • Vahr Bremen
  • Vegesack Bremen
  • Verenmoor Bremen
  • Volskuhle Bremen
  • Vorrade Lübeck
  • Walle Bremen
  • Warturm Bremen
  • Wasserhorst Bremen
  • Wesloe Lübeck
  • Westend Bremen
  • Wilhelmhöhe Lübeck
  • Woltmershausen Bremen
  • Wulfsdorf Lübeck

Bundle of 5 Popular German Genealogy Research Guides – 40% Off

Family Roots Publishing has for the first time bundled our five most popular Germanic research guides – and is offering them as a bundle to the public at 40% off (that’s full wholesale – what the dealer’s pay).

These books are perfect for the beginner in German research, as well as anyone wishing to have a variety of German resources at their fingertips.

The bundle is made up of the following items:

Value of the five books making up this bundle is $87.85. We are discounting the bundle by 40%, making it just $52.71 (plus $8 USA p&h). Click here or on the illustration to order. This sale ends July 20, 2017.

Don’t need all five of these books? We still have a deal for you. We are discounting each of the items by 25% purchased as less-than-the-bundle. Click on their links to go to their individual pages. Use your back arrow to return to this page and purchase the bundle.

Following are full descriptions of each of the five items:

Tracing Your Germanic Ancestors; by Leland K. Meitzler from the Publishers of Your Genealogy Today, Internet Genealogy & History Magazine; 2016; 8.5×11; saddle-stapled; 66 pp; Item #: FR0121

This book is also available in PDF format.

It’s a pleasure to announce this newest edition to the Tracing Your Ancestors series. German ancestral research represents one of the largest areas of interest in the USA

  • Find Your Germanic Place of Origin!
  • Passenger and Immigration Records
  • German Parish & Civil Registers
  • German Maps and Gazetteers
  • Census Records of Germany
  • Online German Research
  • Surname Distribution Maps


  • Finding The Place Of Origin; Locate your Germanic ancestors’ home villages
  • Genealogical “Hail Mary!” Search; Using German surname distribution maps
  • German Maps & Gazetteers; Don’t overlook these important resources
  • Passenger & Immigration Records; Trace your ancestors’ travels to their new homeland
  • Online German Research; We show you the key online resources for researching your Germanic ancestors
  • German Parish & Civil Records; Where to locate the vital records for the birth, marriage, and death of your ancestors
  • German Census Records; We look at where to locate German census records and the best way to access them

German Census Records, 1816-1916: The When, Where, and How of a Valuable Genealogical Resource; by Roger P Minert, Ph.D., A.G.; 2016; 260 pp; 8.5×11; Softbound; Written in English; ISBN: 9781628590777; Item #: FR0650

After wondering for several years why American researchers know very little about German census records, my good friend, Dr. Roger Minert, found an opportunity to live in Europe for six months to investigate them. He was sure that many existed, but he could find very little information about them. While in Europe, he learned that even German researchers know very little about their census records! How could such a potentially important resource be lost to obscurity? In a new book, written in English, researchers can now learn where and when German census records were compiled, as well as why and how. The author also describes state by state the content of census records and explains how surviving census documents can be located. This is groundbreaking information, of enormous value to anyone researching their German roots.

Would you like additional information about your family in old country? The information found in the parish registers is key to your research, but there’s often even more family information to find in the German census records.

The following Table of Contents is found in the volume:

  • Acknowledgements
  • Introduction
  • Chapter 1: A History of Census Records in the German States
  • Chapter 2: The Census of 1867: The Great Transition
  • Chapter 3: Census Records during the German Empire 1871-1918
  • Chapter 4: Census Records in the German States from 1816 to 1864
  • Chapter 5: Anhalt
  • Chapter 6: Baden
  • Chapter 7: Bayern [Bavaria]
  • Chapter 8: Brandenburg
  • Chapter 9: Braunschweig [Brunswick]
  • Chapter 10: Bremen (Hansestadt Bremen)
  • Chapter 11: Elsaß-Lothringen {Alsace-Lorraine]
  • Chapter 12: Hamburg (Hansestadt Hamburg)
  • Chapter 13: Hannover [Hanover]
  • Chapter 14: Hessen [Hesse]
  • Chapter 15: Hessen-Nassau [Hesse-Nassau]
  • Chapter 16: Hohenzollern
  • Chapter 17: Lippe
  • Chapter 18: Lübeck (Hansestadt Lübeck) [Luebeck]
  • Chapter 19: Mecklenburg-Schwerin
  • Chapter 20: Mecklenburg-Strelitz
  • Chapter 21: Oldenburg
  • Chapter 22: Ostpreußen [East Prussia]
  • Chapter 23: Pommern [Pomerania]
  • Chapter 24: Posen
  • Chapter 25: Reuß älterer Linie [Reuss Elder Line]
  • Chapter 26: Reuß jüngere Linie [Reuss Younger Line]
  • Chapter 27: Rheinprovinz [Rhineland Province]
  • Chapter 28: Sachsen-Altenburg [Saxe-Altenburg]
  • Chapter 29: Sachsen-Meiningen [Saxe-Meiningen]
  • Chapter 30: Königreich Sachsen [Kingdom of Saxony]
  • Chapter 31: Sachsen-Meiningen [Saxe-Meiningen]
  • Chapter 32: Provinz Sachsen [Province of Saxony]
  • Chapter 33: Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach [Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach]
  • Chapter 34: Schaumburg-Lippe
  • Chapter 35: Schlesian [Silesia]
  • Chapter 36: Schleswig-Holstein
  • Chapter 37: Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt
  • Chapter 38: Schwarzburg-Sondershausen
  • Chapter 39: Waldeck
  • Chapter 40: Westfalen [Westphalia]
  • Chapter 41: Westpreußen [West Prussia]
  • Chapter 42: Württemberg [Wuerttemberg]
  • Chapter 43: German Census Records from 1816-1916: What Do We Know Now?
  • Chapter 44: Conclusions
  • Appendix A: Writing to Archives in Germany, France, and Poland
  • Appendix B: Conducting Census Research in Archives in Germany, France and Poland
  • Appendix C: Interesting Documents Relating to German Census Campaigns
  • Appendix D: The States of Germany in 1871
  • Bibliography
  • Index

The German Research Companion, Third Edition, by Shirley J. Riemer, Roger P. Minert & Jennifer A. Anderson. 2010; 706 pp; softbound; ISBN 0-9656761-6-1; Item #M0025.

Roger Minert, Shirley J. Riemer, and Jennifer Anderson spent hundreds of hours in adding additional material to their earlier Second Edition, editing, and layout of this book, making a good volume even better.

The German Research Companion is often referred to as “the Bible of German family history.” It provides a wide range of helpful information on virtually hundreds of topics related to German research, most indexed for easy reference. It is published in a handy 5.5 x 8.5 inch format, making it an ideal book to accompany the German family historian on research trips to libraries, archives, seminars, and even the “old country.”

Although not intended as a “how to do German research” volume, genealogists will find it one of the most complete books on German research produced. Concentrating on German research sources, it is in fact the only book in print that deals with the wide range of material needed by those who are searching their German lines. Written in English, the genealogist needs no knowledge of the German language to use the volume. Any German words and phrases found in The German Research Companion are either translated or clarified in English.

The German Research Companion contains useful details on hundreds of German genealogical topics. The following is directly from the Table of Contents:

Section 1: German land, past and present

  • Germany’s political and jurisdictional organization
  • The three empires
  • Populations, capitals, and geography
  • The courts and the constitution
  • The rulers, the flag and the colonies
  • The major turning points and markers of German history

Section 2: The Tools, Contacts, and Resources

  • Resources for utilizing the Family History Library and its branches
  • Uses of the Family History Library Catalog for German Research
  • Credentialed researchers, societies, home-area sources
  • The search for the German immigrant’s place of origin
  • Communicating with Germany
  • Sending euro abroad
  • Village photographs and conference audiotapes
  • Choosing between Du and Sie
  • German organizations and institutes
  • Frequently used resources

Section 3: Emigration and Immigration

  • Immigration laws in the United States
  • Emigration laws in Germany
  • Naturalization records
  • The immigration process and Ellis Island
  • The Statue of Liberty
  • Immigration laws
  • Passport applications
  • German immigrant aid societies
  • Pennsylvania societies, archives, and libraries
  • Basic resources for researching Germans from Russia
  • Basic resources for researching the Danube Swabians
  • Basic resources for researching the Wends (Sorbs)
  • Basic resources for researching Germans in Pennsylvania
  • Basic resources for researching Germans in Alsace-Lorraine
  • Basic resources for researching Germans in the Austro-Hungarian Empire
  • Basic resources for researching Germans in Sudetenland
  • Basic resources for researching Germans in Bukovina
  • Basic resources for researching Germans in Canada
  • Basic resources for researching Germans in Czechoslovakia
  • Basic resources for researching Germans in Galatia
  • Basic resources for researching Germans in Liechtenstein
  • Basic resources for researching Germans in Lithuania
  • Basic resources for researching Germans in Netherlands
  • Basic resources for researching Germans in Poland
  • Basic resources for researching Germans in Silesia
  • Basic resources for researching Germans in Switzerland

Section 4: United States Resources

  • U.S. Cemeteries and burial records
  • National Archives and Records Administration
  • Social Security history and research
  • U.S. Railroad and Retirement Board
  • U.S. vital records
  • The WPA
  • The U.S. Census
  • Land and property records
  • The Homestead Act
  • U.S. Libraries and publishers
  • American military records
  • Germans who fought in the American Civil War
  • Hessian soldier research
  • The Turnverein in America
  • Fraternal organizations

Section 5: Language and Vocabularies

  • History and characteristics of the German alphabet and language
  • German dialectics and high, middle, and low German
  • The old German script
  • Abbreviations in German and Latin
  • German genealogy vocabulary
  • Occupations, trades and titles in German and Latin
  • Medical terms, illnesses, and causes of death, in German
  • German family relationships vocabulary
  • Christenings, marriages, and deaths vocabularies
  • Latin genealogy vocabulary
  • Roman numerals
  • Latin vocabularies for calendar dates, tombstone expressions, and old cities of Europe
  • French genealogy vocabulary
  • Fraktur
  • Yiddish

Section 6: German Resources

  • German church and civil registration records
  • Church inventories
  • Citizen books
  • The German privacy law
  • City registers
  • German cemeteries
  • Abbreviations keys to Meyers Orts- und Verkehrslexikon & Müllers grosses deutsches Ortsbuvh
  • Reverse alphabetical place name indexes
  • Maps
  • German phonetics
  • Indexes of German surnames
  • Periodicals
  • Place names
  • Researchers
  • Queries in German publications
  • Village lineage books
  • Postal code directories
  • The Ahnenpass
  • Telephone directories
  • Dictionaries

Section 7: Archives

  • German archive terminologies
  • German federal and state archives
  • County archives
  • Ecclesiastical archives and organizations
  • Central office for genealogy in Leipzig
  • The Berlin Document Center
  • The “Gauck” files
  • Specialized archives
  • Recommendations for working in a German archive
  • Genealogy related organizations in Germany
  • Historical societies in Germany

Section 8: Life in Our Ancestor’s Times

  • Names and naming patterns
  • Patronymic names
  • Given names of Germanic and foreign origin
  • “Name days”
  • Old measurements
  • Monetary units
  • Records of guilds and tradesmen
  • Calendars through the ages
  • The perpetual calendar
  • Feast days
  • Holidays and observances
  • History and customs of Christmas
  • The church in modern Germany
  • Religions: Protestant, Catholic, Jewish and pietist, with resources
  • German Universities and academic degrees
  • Heraldry
  • German nobility
  • Military church-books, cemeteries, archives & records
  • German expellees following World War II
  • German prisoners of war in Americas

Section 9: Newspapers, Libraries, Museums and other Information

  • City directories and manuscript collections
  • German and German-American newspapers
  • Special interest publications
  • Emigration records in newspapers
  • Sister City arrangements
  • German museums, libraries, and publishers
  • American universities in Germany
  • U.S. Embassy offices in Germany
  • Academic and cultural organizations
  • Cooking measurements and ingredients
  • Folk dress (Trachten)
  • Greetings in German
  • Formalities of letter-writing
  • Telephone cards

The Appendix

  • The appendix includes maps, tables, charts, and pictures that help to illustrate Germanic research.

In Conclusion

Simply said, if you’re an English-speaking person doing German research, you will profit by a copy of this new Third Edition of The German Research Companion.

Deciphering Gothic Records – Useful hints for helping you read “Old German” Script!; Compiled by Fay S. Deardon; 1996; 4.25×9; Spiral Bound; 13 pp; Item #FR0122

This booklet was created to give the researcher the most common alphabet variations, German words, names, Latin terms, and abbreviations used in Gothic records. The volume is printed in its entirety on card stock, with easy-to flip spiral binding at the top. It’s ideal for use when deciphering German Gothic script when working in the library or at home.

The following items are found in the booklet:

  • Gothic Alphabet Variations
  • Symbols Commonly Used in Gothic Records
  • Words found in Birth Records
  • Words Found in Marriage Records
  • Words Found in Death Records
  • Abbreviations (Gothic & Latin) Commonly Found in Old German Records
  • Latin Terms Found in Old German Records
  • Illnesses Found in Old German Death Records
  • Titles & Occupations Found in Old German Records
  • Common German Names

Understanding Meyers Orts – Translating Guide for the Directory of the Towns and Places of the German Empire; Compiled by Fay S. Deardon; 2013; 8.5×5; Spiral Bound; 20 pp; ISBN: 9781933194899; Item # FR0198

The book is a guide to reading Meyers Orts- und Verkehrs-Lexicon, which was published in 1912, and is a gazetteer of the Old German Empire., covering about 200,000 places. The gazetteer is extremely useful, but it’s very difficult to read, as it’s written in old Gothic German. The Meyers Orts set of three volumes, available at in its entirely. The volumes are also partially translated at For those portions of each entry not translated, this guide will come in very handy.

This small booklet is made up of the following

  • An introduction to the importance of Meyers Orts.
  • Examples of the Gothic typeface used in Meyers Orts and how it differs from other Gothic alphabets.
  • How to Read Meyers Orts Entries – with examples, and sample translations
  • Common Abbreviations Used in the Meyers Orts Gazetteer – these make up the bulk of the booklet

href=”″>>Order your bundle today by clicking here.

New! – Wagner Heraldry and Genealogy: A Geographical Perspective – Now shipping at 15% off

We just picked up the new Wagner Heraldry and Genealogy: A Geographical Perspective book from the bindery. This is the second volume in a new series that we’re very excited about.

To celebrate its publication, we’re are offering the volume for 15% Off through June 30, 2017. Regularly $27.95, it is offered at just $23.76. To make the deal even better, we are again offered volume 1 of the series, Muller/Mueller Heraldry and Genealogy: A Geographical Perspective at the same discounted price. Buy both and save on shipping!. Click on the links to order.

Following is a full description of the Wagner booK.

Wagner Heraldry and Genealogy: A Geographical Perspective; by Frederick George Siler; 2017; 163 pp; 8.5×11; paperback; ISBN: 978-1-62859-167-5 Item #: FR0701.

This volume deals with the Germanic heraldry of families whose name was one of the most common in Germany – that of Wagner. The Wagner surname was first found in the old Duchy of Saxony which existed from 804 to 1296. Its lands included what are now the modern German states of Bremen, Hamburg, Lower Saxony, North Rhine-Westphalia, Schleswig-Holstein, and Saxony-Anhalt. The name is now well established in Scandinavia, the Netherlands, Eastern Europe, and elsewhere as well as in other German-speaking countries.

Because the Wagner surname has become widespread, not only in German-speaking lands but throughout central and eastern Europe many different spellings, have arisen over the centuries. In English and other European languages, including Yiddish and Dutch, the name is also spelled Wegener, Wagnor, Wagener, Waggoner, Wagoner, Waegener, Wagner, Wagonner, Wegner, Waganer, Waggener, Wagen, Weagener, Wagnerin, Wahner, Wahnerr, Wehner, Vegener, Vagner, Vegner, and many more.

German heraldry is unlike British heraldry where a coat-of-arms is associated with one person. Siler’s book includes arms that originated as house marks, guild marks, and burgher arms that have been used by families for centuries. Also included are noble armorial bearings that have been granted to the children of an individual and have been passed down through descendants.

It should be noted that the volume is heavily footnoted, allowing the researcher to locate and examine the original source materials from which the author drew his information. An amazing place index is found at the rear of the book, allowing genealogists to often associate a specific place with Wagner families. It is the author’s belief that there is often a coat of arms that may be associated with one’s European ancestor. It may not be that of a direct ancestor or that of ones ancestral family, but it could well be linked, if only by the proximity of geographical location.

This one-of-a-kind book is the first in a series exploring the heraldry and genealogy of common German surnames with a focus on the English-speaking family historian who seeks another fresh approach to their research. This is not another book about how to trace your German ancestors or a reprint of readily available information from old sources. Most family historians will concede that the research process begins to become more tedious when we attempt to deal with European historical locations and records written in a foreign language. Armed with this book, you will start to overcome barriers of language and shifting state boundaries. Learn how the following components can enhance the story of your Wagner ancestors.

Included in this volume are:

  • Over 2,300 historical and modern geographical locales of the Holy Roman, German and Austrian Empires, as well as Switzerland;
  • Synopses of 31 current and past political states and regions; with links to a catalog of genealogical records by FamilySearch;
  • Colorful illustrations of 53 coats-of-arms along with genealogical and geographical information on 70 Wagner, Wehner, Wagener, Wegner, or Wegener families.

The following is from the Table of Contents



CHAPTER 1 – Synthesizing Heraldry and Genealogy for a Practical Research Tool
What is Heraldry?
Common aspects of Genealogy
Heraldry and the family historian
Geography as a fundamental tool for integrating heraldry and genealogy
Associating a coat-of-arms with your ancestor

CHAPTER 2 – A Brief Introduction to German Heraldry
Historical Background of Germanic Heraldry
Components of the Germanic Coat-of-Arms
Modern German Heraldry

CHAPTER 3 – Heraldic Symbolism
Introduction to heraldic symbolism
Symbolism of the colors, furs, lines, divisions, and ordinaries
Symbolism of the common charges

CHAPTER 4 – An Introduction to the Wagner Surname
Origins and meanings of the name
Variations of the Wagner surname
Location and distribution of the surname
Some historical documentations of Wagner

CHAPTER 5 – Wagner Armorial Bearings: Defining the Elements
Introduction to the geographical territory
Bearer(s) of the coat-of-arms
Particular geographical locale(s) associated with the bearer(s)
Description of the coat-of-arms
Interpreting the coat-of-arms
Other Wagner arms bearers of this geographical territory
Additional geographical and genealogical resources

CHAPTER 6 – Wagner Heraldry and Genealogy: A Geographical Perspective
Czech Republic
East Prussia
Lower Austria
Lower Saxony
North Rhine-Westphalia
West Prussia

CHAPTER 7 – Interpreting the Heraldry of Wagner
Charges associated with the meaning of the surname
Coats-of-arms that display symbols of the bearer’s religious faith
Armorial achievements that illustrate a military theme
Arms that address a significant accomplishment of the bearer
Charges that identify an occupation of the bearer or his ancestors
Symbols of honorable characteristics
Ancient house or family marks
Dealing with different branches of a family in Germanic Ancestry

APPENDIX A – Glossary of Heraldic Symbolism

APPENDIX B – Online Genealogy Research by Location

APPENDIX C – Gallery of Wagner Coats-of-Arms

INDEX – Historical and Modern Geographical Locales

Tracing Your Female Ancestors Bundle – 20% Off!

Since 1/2 of our ancestors are female, it seemed only fitting that we offer a promo on two of our most popular items, The Tracing Your Female Ancestors booklets from Moorshead Magazines.

Family Roots Publishing has created a bundle of the two items, and discounted it by 20%, making the price only $15.92 (Reg. $19.95). We have a limited number of bundles on hand, so click here or on the illustration and order yours today.

Don’t need both items, but would like one of them? We’ve discounted the items individually by 10%. Click on the links to order.

Following are full descriptions of each of the items in the bundle.

Tracing Your Female Ancestors; Compiled by Gena Philibert-Ortega; 68 pps; Paper; Full Color; saddle-stapled 8.5×11; Item # MM014

  • 25 Websites to Increase Success:
  • Plus Research Tips For:
    • Women in the Work Force
    • Women and the Vote
    • Women in Photographs
    • African American Ancestors
    • Women in the Civil War
    • Female Ancestors Pre-1850
    • The Secret Lives of Women
    • And Much More!

Includes a special look at Women in Photographs by Maureen Taylor

  • Introduction, tips and strategies to help you get started in your search for your female ancestors
  • Finding Your Pre-1850 Female Ancestors, we look at some key sources and offer some alternatives to locating female ancestors before 1850
  • 25 Online Sources, a list of key sites you should add to your internet toolbox
  • Women’s Clubs, when traditional sources aren’t enough, try locating your ancestor in clubs and other organizations
  • Tracing Your African American Female Ancestors, there are many resources available for researching your African American female ancestors
  • Jane S. Chatham Case Study, a look at one lady’s very difficult life and the sources used to piece it together
  • Women & Divorce, they didn’t do that in the good old days: researching your female ancestor’s divorce
  • Women’s Work, women were more than just housewives; they filled many different roles in peacetime and wartime
  • Secret Lives Of Women, search for your female ancestor in cookbooks, journals, quilting books and more
  • Manuscript Collections, manuscript collections can uncover details to help illustrate the life of your female ancestor
  • University Library Sources, university libraries are great repositories for additional information that might otherwise go unnoticed
  • Women In Photos, renowned photo expert, Maureen Taylor, shines some light on finding your ancestor in photographs
  • Women And The Vote, knowing more about the history of female suffrage can point you toward valuable resources
  • Women In The Civil War, you might be surprised to find out what your female ancestor did during the Civil War
  • Grandma Was An Alien? alook at how women became aliens in their own country
  • Writing Their Story, telling the story of your female ancestor is an important step in your ongoing genealogy research

Tracing Your Female Ancestors Volume II; Compiled by Gena Philibert-Ortega: from the Publishers of History Magazine; 66pp; Paper; saddle-stapled; Full Color; 8.5×11; Item # MM021

Tracing Your Female Ancestors Volume II continues the success of our first volume with all new articles that reveal more research resources and strategies for finding your elusive female ancestors. Compiled by Gena Philibert-Ortega, with additional articles by Lisa Alzo, Jean Wilcox Hibben and Tammy Hepps

  • This exciting issue includes:
    • 10 Unusual Sources
    • Female Immigrant Ancestors
    • Digitized Book Resources
    • 50+ Online Resources
    • Finding Your Femme Fatales
    • Researching Jewish Women
    • Researching Female Veterans
    • And Much More!

Here is a complete list of articles you will find in this special edition publication:

  • Conducting Searches,Gena Philibert-Ortega offers some insight into the importance of how you conduct searches.
  • Using the FamilySearch Catalog, Gena Philibert-Ortega describes the importance of this much-have resource!
  • Google Tools to get you Going, Gena Philibert-Ortega highlights Google’s tool set and how it can help you find your female ancestor.
  • Locating Death records, Gena Philibert-Ortega looks at resources for locating the death of a female ancestor.
  • searching City Directories, Gena Philibert-Ortega shows how you can follow your female ancestor through time.
  • Finding Your Female Veterans, Gena Philibert-Ortega offers resources for finding your female ancestor who served their country.
  • Female Immigrant Ancestors, Jean Wilcox Hibben examines why and how women took the gamble.
  • Pinning Female Ancestors, Gena Philibert-Ortega looks at Pinterest and shows you how to use it to your genealogical advantage.
  • Digitized Book Resources, Gena Philibert-Ortega recommends digitized book collections for female ancestor research.
  • Church Records, Gena Philibert-Ortega shows how church records might illuminate your ancestor’s life.
  • Ten Unusual Sources, Gena Philibert-Ortega offers up some lesser-known resources for finding that “difficult” female ancestor.
  • Locating Female Jewish Ancestors, Tammy Hepps offers five recommendations for overcoming the challenges you may encounter
  • Finding Your Femmes Fatales, Lisa A. Alzo explores the dark side of female ancestors
  • Telling Your Females’ Stories, Lisa A. Alzo shows how to honor your female ancestor with a variety of ideas and the tools to make it happen!
  • Case Study: Lessons from Martha, Gena Philibert-Ortega talks about the lessons learned from one special research project
  • Now What? Gena Philibert-Ortega offers some closing thoughts on starting the search for your female ancestors

Again, Family Roots Publishing has created a bundle of the two items, and discounted it by 20%, making the price only $15.92 (Reg. $19.95). We have a limited number of bundles on hand, so click here or on the illustration and order yours today.

Family Roots Publishing Website Server Upgrade

For the last year I’ve complained about the Family Roots Publishing website having a case of the “slows.” Not all the time, but every once in a while I found that I could leave the room and get a bite to eat while waiting for a page to open. I’d call the customer support number at my web hosting service and inevitably the page would open about the time I got a support person on the phone – and I was always assured that nothing was wrong… Yeh… Right…

Several weeks ago the site went down. I found out that my hosting service had done a php upgrade and didn’t tell me ahead of time. For a number of days we fought to fix code that was broken during the upgrade. We finally got everything working properly last week. Then I got a call from a salesman. He explained that although the service techs wouldn’t admit it, my “slows” problem was all being caused by my having my site hosted on a shared server. I suspected this in the past, but no one at the hosting service would admit it. It comes down to the fact that if most companies using a shared server have little business, then site access is fine. But – if one of the companies takes off and has lots of traffic, server access slows down. If several companies sharing the server have lots of traffic, access can slow even further – and nearly stop. It seems that was what happened with the server was using.

The fix was easy… I just paid more money, and upgraded my server to to a VPS – or Virtual Private Server. So – I’m still sharing a server, but there’s only a couple companies doing it, and not hundreds. Access is great. There’s no more waiting for pages to open. I’m happy and I’m sure the customers will be also. Check it out.

FamilySearch Digital Records Access is Replacing Microfilm & Film Distribution is to Cease in August

In a press release dated June 26, 2017, FamilySearch announced that microfilm distribution to branch libraries is ending as of August 31, 2017. While we all expected this would happen at some point, we didn’t expect it would happen now. Digitization of the films held in the Granite Mountain vault in Utah is still ongoing and is expected to continue until expected completion by the end of 2020. According to my calculations, it looks like that for over three years we can’t expect all films to be available that were accessible in the past. Meaning that if you wish to see microfilm that your local Family History Center hasn’t opted to keep for a while, and the data isn’t available online someplace, you’d best plan on a trip to Salt Lake City. Films in the library will stay in place – at least until digitization of that roll is complete.

This has a lot of folks upset. And for good reason. How many people paid extra to have films kept at their local FHC on indefinite loan? I’m sure that number is in the thousands. It seems that indefinite is exactly that. However, since the church has given permission for local priesthood leaders to make local decisions regarding keeping microfilms already in stock, it is already being reported by some Family History Center directors that films on indefinite loan will stay. I wouldn’t expect that to always be the case, however.

As microfilm is being phased out industry-wide, costs of maintaining the viewing and printing machinery have risen. I’m guessing that the possession of low-maintenance microfilm readers by the FHCs will play into whether they try to keep film on hand for a while. Maintenance costs are a big part in the decision to stop film distribution I understand.

A major reason for ceasing the production and distribution of microfilm to the FHCs is that the cost of the film itself has gone out-of-site. I’ve seen it said that the price is as high as $85 per roll. Whether that’s silver or diazo film I don’t know. Diazo film was always cheaper. I don’t know if FamilySearch produced silver or diazo film. Maybe a reader could answer that question in “Comments.”

Now – all this being said – In the long run, we are all thrilled to have access from home to what we once had to view at the local FHC. So we may need patience, but in the end, it looks to be a good thing.

Following is the “updated” press release. Also see the FAQs by clicking here.
June 26,2017 – FamilySearch, a world genealogy leader and nonprofit, announced today its plans to discontinue its 80-year-old microfilm distribution service. The transition is the result of significant progress made in FamilySearch’s microfilm digitization efforts and the obsolescence of microfilm technology. The last day for ordering microfilm will be August 31, 2017. Online access to digital images of the world’s historic records allows FamilySearch to service more people around the globe, faster and more efficiently. See Finding Digital Images of Records on and Frequently Asked Questions.

A global leader in historic records preservation and access, FamilySearch and its predecessors began using microfilm in 1938, amassing billions of the world’s genealogical records in its collections from over 200 countries. Why the shift from microfilm to digital? Diane Loosle, Director of the Patron Services Division said, “Preserving historic records is only one half of the equation. Making them easily accessible to family historians and researchers worldwide when they need them is the other crucial component.”

Loosle noted that FamilySearch will continue to preserve the master copies of its original microfilms in its Granite Mountain Records Vault as added backup to the digital copies online.

As the Internet has become more accessible to people worldwide over the past two decades, FamilySearch made the decision to convert its preservation and access strategy to digital. No small task for an organization with 2.4 million rolls of microfilm in inventory and a distribution network of over 5,000 family history centers and affiliate libraries worldwide.

It began the transition to digital preservation years ago. It not only focused on converting its massive microfilm collection, but also in replacing its microfilm cameras in the field. All microfilm cameras have been replaced with over 300 specialized digital cameras that significantly decrease the time required to make historic records images accessible online.

FamilySearch has now digitally reproduced the bulk of its microfilm collection—over 1.5 billion images so far—including the most requested collections based on microfilm loan records worldwide. The remaining microfilms should be digitized by the end of 2020, and all new records from its ongoing global efforts are already using digital camera equipment.

Digital image collections can be accessed today in three places at Using the Search feature, you can find them in Records (check out the Browse all published collections link), Books, and the Catalog. For additional help, see Finding Digital Images of Records on

Transitioning from microfilm to digital creates a fun opportunity for FamilySearch’s family history center network. Centers will focus on simplified, one-on-one experiences for patrons, and continue to provide access to relevant technology, popular premium subscription services, and restricted digital record collections not available to patrons from home.

Centers and affiliate libraries will coordinate with local leaders and administrators to manage their current microfilm collections on loan from FamilySearch, and determine when to return films that are already published online. For more information, see Digital Records Access Replacing Microfilm.

NYG&B Announces the Retirement of Karen Mauer Jones & the Selection of Laura Murphy DeGrazia as Editor of The Record

The following news release is from the New York Genealogical and Biographical Society:

Tuesday, June 27, 2017 – 11:30am: Today the New York Genealogical and Biographical Society (NYG&B) announced the retirement of editor Karen Mauer Jones and the selection of Laura Murphy DeGrazia as editor of The New York Genealogical and Biographical Record (The Record).

Earlier this year the NYG&B announced that Karen Mauer Jones wished to retire as editor of The Record. Since 2011 she has brought her expertise and vision to one of America’s oldest—and most respected—scholarly genealogical journals. An editor, author, speaker, and professional genealogist, she has a long and distinguished career. The author of numerous books and articles, including those published in the National Genealogical Society Quarterly and The Record, she is widely respected in the genealogical field and has been a Board-certified genealogist since 2011 from the Board for Certification of Genealogists (BCG). A noted New York scholar, she was elected as a Fellow of the NYG&B in 2013 and served on the editorial team for the NYG&B’s award-winning New York Family History Research Guide and Gazetteer. She is also a member of the NYG&B’s Family History Advisory Committee. A past board member and regional vice president for the Association of Professional Genealogist (APG), she also served as a board member and vice president of administration for the Federation of Genealogical Societies (FGS). Under her careful stewardship The Record has published hundreds of pages reflecting the diverse stories from families across the state of New York.

After a national search the NYG&B is honored to announce Laura Murphy DeGrazia will assume the editorship beginning with the January 2018 issue. A noted and respected genealogical scholar, she was previously co-editor of The Record and was named a Fellow of the NYG&B in 2013. With expertise in New York City and Long Island research, she was a member of the New York Family History Research Guide and Gazetteer editorial team and served on the NYG&B Education Committee from 2006–2015. Widely recognized across the genealogical field for her expertise, she authored New York City, Long Island, and Westchester County, part of the National Genealogical Society’s Research in the States series in 2013. Her work has appeared in numerous publications including The Record, the National Genealogical Society Quarterly and the New England Historical and Genealogical Register. Her experience in publishing and editing includes recent work as an advisor to NGS Magazine and editor of NGS Monthly. She is also known as a stalwart representative of the professional genealogical community. Laura has been a Board-certified genealogist since 1998 and frequently speaks and writes on genealogical standards. She is also a past president and former trustee of the BCG.

NYG&B President D. Joshua Taylor noted, “The Record is one of the world’s most influential genealogical journals. All those engaged in the study of New York families have benefited from Karen’s esteemed work as editor of The Record for the past six years. We are honored to have Laura take up this role and look forward to The Record’s continued success for many years to come.”

Published continuously since 1870, articles in The Record include over one million names of New Yorkers from the 1600s to the present. Access to The Record is available online through membership in the New York Genealogical and Biographical Society.

Classes at the 2017 Salt Lake Christmas Tour Include a DNA Track & One-on-One Analytics

The classes being offered at the 2017 Salt Lake Christmas Tour are now posted at the website. Based on the overwhelming success of Regina Negrycz’s DNA presentation in 2016, we’ve asked her back to present a week-long DNA-oriented series. In addition to the lectures, Regina has agreed to do one-on-ones with Christmas Tour attendees, helping them analyze their data!

See Regina’s Ancestral Beginnings website.

So – Anyone coming to the Christmas Tour in 2017 should plan on bringing their DNA data if they want to go over it with Regina.

Regina’s lectures at the 2017 Salt Lake Christmas Tour are as follows:

  • Navigating Your 23&Me Results
  • Answering your AncestryDNA Questions
  • Reviewing FTDNA Tests and Results
  • Exploring MyHeritage DNA
  • Mapping Your DNA to Create Your Genetic Fan Chart

Lectures will also be given by the following speakers (with number of lectures in parentheses):

  • Thomas MacEntee (10)
  • Lisa Alzo (5)
  • Arlene Eakle (3)
  • Leland K Meitzler (1)
  • Raymon Nesbitt – FamilySearch (1)
  • Ron Tanner – FamilySearch (1)
  • Maureen MacDonald (1)
  • Anna Swayne – Ancestry DNA (1)
  • Dwight Radford (1)
  • Kevan Hansen (1)
  • Bruce Buzbee – RootsMagic Developer (1)
  • Loni Gardner (1)

I will write more about the above presenters and their planned presentations in upcoming articles.

Ruth Ellen Maness A.G. Passes – R.I.P. my dear friend…

I got a text from Kevan Hansen in Salt Lake City this morning saying that our friend, Ruth Maness passed away last night. The word is that she had a massive heart attack.

Ruth was an accredited genealogist, specializing in Scandinavian problems. Personally, I’ve worked with Ruth for at least 15 or more years. For many years she worked a reference desk at the Family History Library, helping people with Scandinavian research. During the Salt Lake Christmas Tour, Ruth would take time off and spend the week working with the Christmas Tour attendees. Ruth Maness helped thousands of people find their ancestors. She retired from the Family History Library a couple or three years ago, and has since been working with Holly Hansen, contributing to and writing genealogy guidebooks.

I’m sure that detailed obits will be forthcoming from the Salt Lake area, and will keep my eye open, and add links as I can.

MyHeritage DNA Tests – Only $69 for Father’s Day – Until June 19

MyHeritage is running a Fathers’s Day promo on their Autosomal DNA test – cutting the price to just $69 until June 19. That’s again the best price that they’ve ever offered. Order 3 kits or more, and they add free shipping. Click on this link.

MyHeritage DNA is the perfect gift for yourself and the people you love, now at the lowest price ever offered. By testing more relatives, you can learn more about yourself and determine whether your DNA matches are maternal or paternal.

All it takes is a few minutes and a gentle swab of the cheek to obtain the DNA sample that you mail back to the MyHeritage DNA lab. Within 4-5 weeks, DNA analysis will be complete, and you’ll be able to view the results online at MyHeritage.

DNA testing is the perfect way to celebrate Father’s Day!

Mother and Adopted Daughter Meet For the First Time!

Robin never forgot the daughter she gave birth to at the age of 15. She’d counted the baby’s fingers and toes. The girl was perfect — and she never saw her again.

Becky wanted to find her birth mother from the time she discovered she’d been adopted. She wanted to know where she came from.

Becky was engaged when she took a MyHeritage DNA test, with her fiancé’s support, to learn of her heritage.

Robin had her DNA tested as a part of a family history project.

View the following video by clicking on the illustration to learn their story:

Following are links to blogs I’ve done in the past about their DNA test:

Click here to order your MyHeritage DNA test today!

By the way, I get matches to new cousins every few days from my MyHeritage DNA testing that I had done last February. On March 28, I had 1; on April 2, I had 1; April 10, I had 4; April 14, I had 2, April 30, I had 2; May 7, I had 3; May 9, I had 1; May 14, I had 1; May 21, I had 3; May 28, I had 5; June 4, I had 3; and June 11, I had another 1… I can’t keep up!

If you have tested your DNA with other autosomal DNA test providers than MyHeritage DNA, you can easily upload the DNA raw data file to to get a comprehensive Ethnicity Estimate and DNA Matches. It’s entirely free, and you will find more relatives! Click here to Upload your DNA data to MyHeritage and enjoy free DNA Matching and Ethnicity Estimates.

Please note – I have an affiliate relationship with MyHeritage and MyHeritage DNA. I receive a small portion of any sales made by my readers clicking on the above links, and purchasing.

Historical Timeline of Michigan, 1612-2016

The following article was written by my good friend, by William Dollarhide:

The study of Michigan’s early American history includes the Indian Land Cessions, and subsequent public land sales in Michigan Territory. Twenty State Land States each held the original title to their unsold lands at the time they entered the Union. Michigan was one of the thirty Public Land States, where public land sales were conducted by the federal government. Michigan began as part of the first Public Domain of the U.S. – the Northwest Territory. Title to all of the land in the Public Domain fell to the federal government, including responsibility for purchasing the land from the American Indians via treaty. Only then was land sold to the public. Public land was sold only in a General Land Office (GLO) which the federal government sited near the land being sold. The first Indian Land Cessions in Michigan Territory began in 1807. Following the series of Indian land Cessions reveals the areas and time periods when white settlement could legally take place. The other states formed from the Northwest Territory had an impact on the evolvement of Michigan as well. And, an identification of the early federal and state censuses taken in Michigan aids in the understanding of the steady growth in the early days of its settlement. Along with these highlighted events, this historical timeline of Michigan identifies the main jurisdictions and how they evolved. The goal here is to give genealogists a sense of the jurisdictions in place at the time an ancestor lived in Michigan. Understanding the jurisdiction where the records may be located today is half the battle in genealogical research.

1612-1615. French explorers Etienne Brule and Samuel de Champlain were the first Europeans to see the Great Lakes. Brule explored Lake Huron in 1612. He was followed by Champlain in 1615.

1668-1671. In 1668, French missionary Fathers Claude Dablon and Louis Marquette established the first permanent European settlement in present Michigan at Sault Sainte Marie. The same two established a mission at Mackinac Island in 1670; another at St. Ignace in 1671.

1673. French explorers Jacques Jolliet and Louis Marquette left their base in St. Ignace and made their way to the Illinois River, which they descended to become the first Europeans to discover the Mississippi River.

1679. French missionary Louis Hennepin sailed up the Detroit River, through Lake St. Clair, which he named, and into Lake Huron and Lake Michigan. Hennepin was associated with Rene-Robert Cavelier (Sieur de La Salle), the first governor of Québec, and with whom he had built the 45-ton ship, Le Griffon, to sail through the Great Lakes.

1682 Louisiana. Following the same route as Jolliet and Marquette, René-Robert Cavelier (Sieur de LaSalle) floated down the Mississippi River and continued all the way to its mouth at the Gulf of Mexico. He then claimed the entire Mississippi Basin for Louis XIV of France, for whom Louisiana was named.

1685. The French established La Louisiane Française as a district of New France. The French claims in North America now included all of the present Maritime Provinces, the St. Lawrence River areas, the Hudson’s Bay areas, the Great Lakes areas, and the entire Mississippi Basin.

1691. Fort St. Joseph (now Niles, Michigan) was established by the French as a military and trading post.

1701. French Acadian explorer and adventurer Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac established Fort Ponchartrain du Détroit for France on the site of present Detroit, Michigan. The Wyandot Indians (named the Huron Indians by the French) allowed the fort to be built and occupied in exchange for trade goods offered by the French traders.

1713. Queen Anne’s War. At the Peace of Utrecht ending the war, France ceded to Britain its claims to the present Hudsons Bay region and the peninsula part of French Acadia (which the British renamed Nova Scotia). The remaining French claims in North America were now contained within Quebéc, including the St. Lawrence River and Great Lakes region; and La Louisiane Française, which extended down the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers to the Gulf of Mexico.

1758-1760. In 1758, during the French and Indian War, the British captured Fort Frontenac (present Kingston, Ontario), the strategic access point to the Great Lakes. In 1760, British Army Major Roger Rogers took possession of Fort Detroit in the name of Great Britain, ending French rule there.

1763. The Treaty of Paris of 1763 ended the French and Indian War (it was called the Seven Years War in Canada and Europe). France lost virtually all of its remaining North American claims. The original French areas east of the Mississippi and all of Acadia and Québec were lost to Britain; the areas west of the Mississippi went to Spain, renamed Spanish Louisiana. After the 1763 Treaty, George III issued a proclamation renaming the Province of Québec as the Province of Canada. He also issued the Proclamation Line of 1763, in which Indian Reserves were established west of the Appalachian Mountain Range, limiting western migrations by all of the British colonies. As part of the 1763 treaty, Britain was given the right to remove the entire Acadian population, either returning them to France, or finding other places in North America. The British agreed to provide the transplanted Acadians with land and assistance in a new settlement. Eventually, most of the removed Acadians ended up in Spanish Louisiana, just north of New Orleans.

1763. Pontiac’s Rebellion. During the French and Indian War, the Indian Tribes of the Great Lakes region supported and fought for the French. After the defeat of the French, the Ottawa Indians, led by Chief Pontiac, revolted against the British, taking possession of Fort St. Joseph, and all other trading posts and forts in present Michigan except Detroit.

1765-1773. American Rebellions. In 1765, the Stamp Act led to the formation of an anti-British group in Boston called the Sons of Liberty. In 1767, the Townshend Acts created a series of protests, led by the Sons of Liberty. In 1770, the Boston Massacre fueled the fires of rebellion, and in 1773, the Boston Tea Party in Boston Harbor protested the British tax on tea. The British Parliament responded with the Coercive Acts, taking away the right of self government in the colonies; and planting an occupation force of British Army Regulars in Boston.

1774. The Québec Act. The British reacted to the increased American rebellions by solidifying British loyalty in the Province of Canada. They enacting the Québec Act, which reversed the long-standing British policy against Catholic governments in all of their colonies. The Québec Act, just a few years after the forced deportations of Catholic French Acadians, restored the name Province of Québec and granted Québec residents full British citizenship, allowed them to retain their Catholic churches and parish taxing systems, and to keep their established French Laws and Customs. The Act also expanded the physical area of Québec to include a huge area of western lands claimed by the Thirteen Colonies; including present Michigan and the rest of the Old Northwest area. The Thirteen Colonies viewed the Québec Act as one of the Intolerable Acts that made the impending war justifiable.

1777-1778. During the Revolutionary War, a number of French-speaking Acadians from Spanish Louisiana joined their counterparts from the leftover French settlements of Kaskaskia, Vincennes, Sault Sainte Marie, and Mackinac Island. They were added to the Virginia Militia force commanded by General George Rogers Clark. General Clark later noted that the fiercely anti-British fighters he gained from the French communities contributed greatly to his monumental victories against the British in the conquest of the Old Northwest. But General Clark was never able to lead an expedition against Fort Detroit, which remained under British control for several years after the Revolutionary War.

1780-1783. Fort St. Joseph. During the war, the British army used Fort St. Joseph to equip and train their Indian partners in the Great Lakes region. In 1780, Fort Joseph was raided by a combined American/French force, but the attack was repelled by the British/Indian occupants. In 1781, a Spanish/Indian force left St. Louis and marched to Fort St. Joseph, defeated the British and took possession of the fort. The Spanish flag was raised and for a brief time, Fort St. Joseph was considered Spanish territory. Although the Spanish had declared war against Britain in 1780 in support of the American rebellion, their victory at Fort St. Joseph in 1781 was their only military campaign against the British during the Revolutionary War. After the war ended in 1783, the Spanish abandoned Fort Joseph, but it was not ceded by the British to the Americans until 1796.

1783. The Treaty of Paris of 1783 officially ended the Revolutionary War and recognized the United States of America as an independent nation for the first time. The area of present Michigan was included in the area defined to be part of the territory of the United States, but certain trading posts and forts in the Old Northwest region were still occupied by the British Army, including Prairie du Chien, Isle Royale, and Fort Detroit.

1784. Connecticut, Virginia and Massachusetts relinquished their western claims to lands in the Great Lakes region, a large area that was to become the Northwest Territory. Title of the state’s claims were transferred to the “Public Domain” of the United States Federal Government.

1787. Northwest Territory. The Ordinance of 1787 established the Territory Northwest of the River Ohio, and defined the procedure for any territory to obtain statehood. The first territory of the United States included the area of the present states of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, and that part of Minnesota east of the Mississippi River.

Federal Census. The Northwest Territory was specifically left out of the 1790 enumeration. Most of the white population in present Michigan was in or around Fort Detroit, still under control of the British Army. There were a few leftover French fur trappers and traders at Sault Sainte Marie and Mackinac Island.

1796. Jay Treaty. Under terms negotiated in the Jay Treaty, Fort Detroit and Fort Joseph were officially ceded by Britain to the United States.

1796. Wayne County, Northwest Territory was created. The area extended from present northern Ohio, and included the eastern half of the Lower Peninsula of present Michigan. Except for the Fort Detroit area, the part of old Wayne County within present Michigan was unceded Indian lands. In 1800, Indiana Territory was created and old Wayne County in present Michigan disappeared; later it was designated as unorganized territory. The current Wayne County, Michigan was formed in 1815.

1800. Indiana Territory was established from the Northwest Territory with William Henry Harrison as the first Governor and Vincennes the capital. The area included most of present-day Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin; part of Minnesota, and the western half of Michigan. The Northwest Territory was reduced to the present-day area of Ohio and the eastern half of Michigan.

1803. Ohio was admitted to the Union as the 17th state, with Chillicothe as the state capital. The portion of present Michigan included in the Northwest Territory, 1800-1803, was added to Indiana Territory. Upon Ohio’s statehood, the name Northwest Territory was dropped.

1805. Michigan Territory was created, taken from the Indiana Territory. The original area was between Lake Michigan and Lake Huron, as today, but included only the eastern tip of the Upper Peninsula, the rest was under control of Indiana Territory. The territorial capital was at Detroit.

1807. Treaty of Detroit. This was the first large Indian Land Cession in Michigan Territory, involving the Ojibwa/Ottawa, Chippewa, Wyandot, and Potawatomi Indian tribes. The cession area extended from Lake Erie, included Detroit and north to Lake Huron below Saginaw Bay. The north-south trace of the western treaty line became the Michigan Meridian used in surveying all Michigan lands after 1815. Note: See Cession No. 66 (Green) on the MI Indian Cessions Map. (Link to map?)

1809. Illinois Territory was separated from Indiana Territory, with Kaskaskia the capital. The original area included present-day Illinois, Wisconsin, a portion of the Upper Peninsula of present Michigan and that portion of Minnesota east of the Mississippi River. The area of Indiana Territory was reduced in size to the area of the present-day state, plus a portion of the Upper Peninsula of present Michigan.

1810. Federal Census. Michigan Territory was the same as when it was created in 1805, with bounds within the Lower Peninsula plus just the eastern tip of the Upper Peninsula. There were four civil districts: Michillimackinac, Huron, Detroit, and Erie. Only fragments of the census schedules from Michillimackinac and Detroit have survived. The population in Michigan Territory in 1810 was 4,762 people.

1810 NOTE: The four civil districts of Michigan Territory in 1810 served as the means of enumerating the residents, and little else. Michillimackinac had only a population from the leftover French settlements at St. Ignace, Mackinac Island, and Sault Sainte Marie. Of the four civil districts of 1810, Michillimackinac was the only one that became an actual county with the same name (now Mackinac). The other three civil districts of Detroit, Huron, and Erie, were within the area of the 1807 Treaty of Detroit land cession. Those three civil districts were merged together to become a new Wayne County in 1815, the first actual county formed in Michigan Territory. In 1810, there was one General Land Office (GLO) in Michigan Territory, located at Detroit. The sale of public lands was limited to the area ceded by the Indians in the 1807 Treaty of Detroit. For the area of the 1807 Treaty of Detroit, see Cession No. 66 (Green) on the MI Indian Cessions Map. (link to map?)

1812-1814. At the beginning of the War of 1812, British forces captured both Fort Mackinac and Fort Detroit. After decisive victories by American forces in the Battle of Lake Erie and the Battle of the Thames, both Mackinac Island and Fort Detroit were returned to American control. The Fort Detroit campaign was led by General William Henry Harrison, who emerged as a national hero.

1816. Indiana was admitted to the Union as the 19th state, with the same boundaries as today. The portion of Indiana Territory in the Upper Peninsula became Unorganized Territory.

1817. An international commission for U.S. / British boundary disputes settled on the St. Mary’s River as the International Boundary between the U.S. and British North America, dividing the community of Sault Sainte Marie. The original community is now within the present Sault Sainte Marie, Michigan; and across the St. Mary’s River as Sault Sainte-Marie, Ontario.

1818. Illinois was admitted to the Union as the 21st state, with the same boundaries as today. The northern portion of Illinois Territory was reassigned to Michigan Territory. At the same time, the unorganized lands which had been part of Indiana Territory were also added to Michigan Territory.

1819. Treaty of Saginaw. This was a major Indian Land Cession in Michigan Territory, involving the Chippewa, Ojibwa/Ottawa, and Potawatomi tribes. Over six million acres of land was ceded to the U.S. federal government. The cession area began at the Treaty of Detroit line to a point near present Kalamazoo, then running northeast to Thunder Bay, encompassing all of Saginaw Bay, then back to the Treaty of Detroit line. Soon after the Treaty of Saginaw cessions, new U.S. government surveys were done in the ceded area. In 1820, there was just one GLO in Michigan Territory, located in Detroit. The first public land entries were in Monroe, Wayne, Macomb, and Oakland counties. Note: See Cession No. 111 (Pink) on the MI Indian Cessions Map. (link to map?)

1820. Federal Census. Michigan Territory now reflected the new areas obtained from Indiana and Illinois territories in 1818. The expanded territory included the Lower Peninsula and Upper Peninsula of present Michigan; plus all of present Wisconsin, and that part of present Minnesota east of the Mississippi River. The 1820 census in present Michigan was limited to areas ceded by the Indians within Monroe, Wayne, Macomb, and Oakland counties, all counties with extant census schedules. Michigan Territory created two counties in present Wisconsin in 1818: Crawford County, with an 1820 census taken for Prairie du Chien; and Brown County, with an 1820 census taken for Green Bay. Crawford and Brown became original counties of Wisconsin Territory in 1837. Michigan Territory’s Upper Peninsula counties of Michillimackinac and Chippewa were almost entirely within unceded Indian lands. Exceptions with populations were at St. Ignace, Mackinac Island and Sault Sainte Marie. The population of Michigan Territory in 1820 was 8,896 people.

1821. Treaty of Chicago. This was a major Indian Land Cession in Michigan Territory, involving the Ottawa, Ojibwa/Chippewa, and Potawatomi Indian tribes. The cession area included much of the land in Michigan Territory south of the Grand River. Note: See Cession No. 117 (Light blue) on the MI Indian Cessions Map. (link to map?)

1825. October. Erie Canal. The entire route of the Erie Canal, from Albany to Buffalo, New York opened to boat traffic for the first time. It was now possible to arrive at New York harbor by sailing ship, travel up the Hudson River by steamboat, and take the same towed barge from Albany all the way to Lake Erie. Steamboat access to the Great Lakes ports in present Ohio, Michigan, and Wisconsin followed. The impact of the migrations via the Erie Canal into Michigan contributed greatly to a population that jumped from under 10,000 in 1825 to over 210,000 in 1840.

1827. Michigan Territorial Census. The territory took its first territorial census in 1827. Surviving original name lists are available for Washtenaw County only.

1830. Federal Census. The area of Michigan Territory was unchanged from 1820. The census included Crawford, Brown, and Iowa counties of the Wisconsin area; Chippewa and Michillimackinac of the Upper Peninsula; and the Lower Peninsula counties of St. Clair, Oakland, Macomb, Wayne, Washtenaw, Lenawee St. Joseph, Van Buren, Cass, and Berrien. The population of Michigan Territory in 1830 was 31,639 people. In 1830, there were GLOs in Detroit and Monroe.

1834. Michigan Territory Census. Surviving name lists are available for Crawford County (now Wisconsin) and Lenawee County only.

1835. October. The voters of Michigan Territory approved a new state constitution. Quickly submitted to Congress for admission as a state, the Michigan petition was stopped by Ohio’s representatives in Congress. Based on the rules of the 1787 Northwest Ordinance, any adjoining state to a proposed state having claims to the same area had “veto power” over the admission. Ohio felt justified in their opposing action because of the language of their 1802 Enabling Act – which stated that Ohio’s northern boundary should extend to “the most northerly cape of the Miami Bay.” But in realty, Ohio coveted the area of the Maumee River Valley, running parallel to the Michigan Territory boundary with Ohio, where they wanted to build a canal, beginning at Toledo. The “Toledo Strip” became the issue stopping Michigan from becoming a state in 1835

1836. March. The 13-million acre Treaty of Washington (1836) was the largest Indian Land Cession in Michigan Territory, involving the Ottawa and Chippewa Indian Tribes. The cession included a large tract west of the Treaty of Saginaw, and north of the Treaty of Chicago contained within the Lower Peninsula as well as a large part of the Upper Peninsula. See Cession No. 205 (Yellow) on the MI Indian Cessions Map. (link to map?)

1836. July. Wisconsin Territory was created, reducing the size and shape of Michigan Territory close to its present boundaries, except for the “Toledo Strip,” still under debate in Congress.

1837. January. Michigan Statehood. As a price of statehood, Michigan Territory agreed to surrender the “Toledo Strip” to Ohio, and Congress voted to admit Michigan as the 26th state in the Union. The boundary between Michigan and Ohio was adjusted by Congress as part of the enabling act. Detroit was the first state capital.
Michigan’s original petition for statehood included only the area of present Michigan as part of the Lower Peninsula. As compensation for the loss of the Toledo Strip, Michigan was given the huge area of the Upper Peninsula, matching the present boundaries of the state (except for the acquisition of Isle Royale in 1842).

1837. Michigan State Census. Tallies only. Individual names not included except in Kalamazoo County.

1840. Federal Census. In the first federal census for the state of Michigan, the boundaries were the same as today. Michigan’s population had increased seven times over 1830, with over 212,267 people in 1840. And, in that year, Public land sales in Michigan were brisk, with GLOs located in Detroit, Genesee Township, Ionia, Kalamazoo, and Monroe.

1845. Michigan State Census. Surviving original name lists are available for St. Joseph, Lenawee, Washtenaw, and Eaton counties only.

1847. The state capital was moved from Detroit to Lansing, Michigan.

1850. Federal Census. The population of the state of Michigan was 397,654 people. In 1850, there were GLOs located at Detroit, Genesee, Ionia, Kalamazoo, and Sault Ste. Marie.

1854. Michigan State Census. Surviving original name lists are available for Eaton and Washtenaw counties only. NOTE: Under a new law, Michigan began taking regularly scheduled state censuses, beginning in 1854 and every ten years thereafter.

Over 90,000 Michigan men were mustered into service during the Civil War.

1908. The Ford Model T was first manufactured.

1941. Auto plants were converted to the production of war materials, causing Michigan to become known as the “Arsenal of Democracy.”

1974. Gerald R. Ford of Grand Rapids, Michigan became the 38th President of the United States.

1989. The Michigan Library and Historical Center was opened in Lansing, Michigan. Since 1989, the Historical Center has been the home of the Library of Michigan, the Archives of Michigan, and Michigan Historical Museum.

2012. The Family Heritage Collection of the Library of Michigan was transferred to the Archives of Michigan, but all materials are still accessible at the Michigan Library and Historical Center. For changes at the Library of Michigan, see the GenealogyBlog article, Jun 14, 2012: “Library of Michigan’s Family Heritage Collection Finds a New Home.” See

2016. July. The Census Bureau estimated the population of Michigan at 9,928,300 people, the 10th largest state in the Union.

Further Reading:

New Records at FindMyPast This Last Week

Databases added at FindMyPast this last week:

WWI Draft Registration Cards
Over 5.1 million new records have been added to our collection of United States WWI draft registration cards. This final update completes this fascinating collection, which now totals more than 25 million records.

The draft was authorized for the purpose of raising a national army in light of the United States’ entry into World War I. When, on April 6, 1917, the United States officially declared war on Germany, the US Army was far too small to effectively fight an overseas war. In response, the Selective Service Act was passed enabling men to be selected, trained and drafted into military service, as necessary. Following the Act’s passage on May 18th 1917, more than 24 million Americans (nearly 98% of the male population under the age of 46) registered for the draft, meaning that this collection records nearly half the male population at that time.

Each result will provide you with a transcript and an image of the original draft registration card. Transcripts will reveal your ancestor’s birth date, place of birth, residence, registration year and citizenship country. Images will often provide additional details such as your ancestor’s home address, citizenship status, marital status, occupation, employer and place of employment, prior military service, race, and details relating to their next of kin. Each card was also signed by the individual, which provides you with a look at your ancestor’s own script and signature.

Additional Sets Added This Last Week

A total of 7.3 million records from the US, Canada and the UK have been released this last Findmypast Friday. Additional collections now available to search include;

New Brunswick, County Deed Registry Books Image Browse
This browse-only collection allows you to explore over 1,400 volumes of land records in their entirety. The material covers 1780 to 1993, contains over 792,000 records and covers all 15 counties within the province. The deed books cover the years 1780 to 1930 while the Indexes run from 1780 to 1993.

Illinois, Northern District, Naturalization Index
Illinois, Northern District, Naturalization Index contains over 550,000 records. This index of naturalization cards from the United States District Court for the Northern District of Illinois covers petitions made by residents of northern Illinois, northwest Indiana, southern and eastern Wisconsin, and eastern Iowa. The records have the highest concentration from the mid-1800s to the mid-1900s, with a few outliers. Each result will provide you with a transcript and an image of the original record. Transcripts will generally reveal the date of your ancestor’s naturalization, their country of birth, place of birth and language. Images may provide further information such as the names and addresses of witnesses, the name and place of the naturalization court, their address, and their date and port of arrival in the United States.

Royal Canadian Mounted Police obituary card index and notices 1876-2007 Browse
Find out if your ancestor died or was killed while serving with the Royal Canadian Mounted Police with over 9,000 browsable obituary cards. The collection comprises obituaries and death notices of RCMP officers who died in service and that were printed in Royal Canadian Mounted Police publications, such as the Scarlet and Gold Magazine, as well as an index of obituaries. The amount of information listed will vary depending on the source material. Most records will reveal when your ancestor died, their rank and regimental number at the very least. A number or entries also include photographs of the deceased officer.

Scotland, Post Office Directories Image Browse
More than 180,000 additional records have been added to our collection of browsable Scottish Post Office Directories. These fascinating records provide brief descriptions of local areas, lists of notable people, of local business owners and are an excellent source for both family and local historians.

1939 Register – empty addresses
Over 667,000 additional 1939 Register records are now available to search. These new records relate to vacant addresses recorded in the register.

Ohio Chapter of Palatines to America – Fall Seminar – Oct 21 2017

The following was received from Richard E. Hartle, Publicity Chairman for the Spring Seminar of the Ohio Chapter Palatines to America:

  • Saturday, October 21, 2017 – Columbus, Ohio
  • Ohio Chapter Palatines to America Fall Seminar
  • Columbus Metropolitan Library, Main Branch, 96 S. Grant Avenue, Columbus, Ohio
  • 9:00 A.M. to 3:15 P.M. – Option for research at the library until 6:00 P.M.

Morning Session 9:30 A.M. – Tim Anderson – “Ohio’s Germanic Cultural Landscapes”

Two-Track Afternoon Sessions:
1:00 P.M. – Kelli Bergheimer – “Preparing for Your Library/Archive Visit”
OR Jenni Salamon – “German Newspapers at the Ohio History Connection”
2:15 P.M. – Liz Plummer – “German Resources at the Ohio History Connection”
OR Ernie Thode – “Swiss Pioneers of Southeastern Ohio”

Alternate afternoon: One-on-One sessions with Russ Pollitt, Head of the Library’s Genealogy and Local History Department

Fees include syllabus, seminar sessions, continental breakfast, and Full Buffet Lunch by Schmidt’s Sausage Haus

Member: $45; Non-Member $55; Deadline for advance registration: October 7, 2017;
After October 7, 2017: cost is $55 for Members and $65 for Non-Members.

Registration will be available online at or with check payable to Ohio Chapter PalAmSend to Joe Stamm, 3930 Lander Road, Chagrin Falls, OH 44022-1329; For questions e-mail:


Thank you,
Richard E. Hartle
Publicity Chairman

Databases Posted at FamilySearch May 1 through June 1, 2017

The following databases were published or updated at FamilySearch between May 1 and June 1 2017:

Title – Number of Indexed Records – Last Updated

Argentina, Entre Ríos, Catholic Church Records, 1764-1983 – 601,470 – 30 May 2017
Canada, New Brunswick, Saint John, Burial Permits, 1889-1919 – 28,555 – 17 May 2017
Chile, Cemetery Records, 1821-2015 – 251,775 – 10 May 2017
Cook Islands, Civil Registration, 1846-1989 – Browse Images – 03 May 2017
Czech Republic, School Registers, 1799-1953 – Browse Images – 03 May 2017
Denmark, Copenhagen City, Civil Marriages, 1739-1964, Index 1877-1964 – 85,071 – 12 May 2017
El Salvador Civil Registration, 1704-1990 – 875,969 – 02 May 2017
France, Dordogne, Censuses, 1856 – 530,703 – 16 May 2017
Germany, Saxony-Anhalt, Halberstadt Kreisarchiv, Ahnenpäße (Ancestor Passports) – Browse Images – 18 May 2017
Italy, La Spezia, Catholic Church Records, 1838-1857 – Browse Images – 22 May 2017
Mexico, Tabasco, Catholic Church Records, 1803-1970 – 30,805 – 23 May 2017
Namibia, Dutch Reformed Church Records, 1956-1984 – 29,076 – 23 May 2017
Peru, Cusco, Civil Registration, 1889-1997 – 498,265 – 02 May 2017
Peru, Amazonas, Civil Registration, 1939-1998 – 68,565 – 17 May 2017
Peru, Lima, Civil Registration, 1874-1996 – 1,967,704 – 18 May 2017
Peru, Moquegua, Civil Registration, 1850-1996 – 1,554 – 18 May 2017
Russia, Simbirsk Poll Tax Census (Revision Lists), 1782-1858 – Browse Images – 17 May 2017
Spain, Province of Asturias, Municipal Records, 1470-1897 – 62,165 – 11 May 2017
Spain, Province of Teruel, Catholic Church Records, 1565-2013 – Browse Images – 01 May 2017
Switzerland, Fribourg, Census, 1880 – 10,443 – 18 May 2017

Florida Marriages, 1830-1993 – 1,699,231 – 01 May 2017
Iowa, Poweshiek County Land Records, 1855-1934 – Browse Images – 08 May 2017
Kentucky, County Marriages, 1797-1954 – 1,317,764 – 19 May 2017
Kentucky Marriages, 1785-1979 – 1,493,817 – 19 May 2017
Louisiana, Parish Marriages, 1837-1957 – 1,093,880 – 01 Jun 2017
Maine Vital Records, 1670-1921 – 2,045,611 – 02 May 2017
Missouri, Reports of Separation Notices, 1941-1946 – 367,825 – 01 Jun 2017
New Hampshire, Civil War Service and Pension Records, 1861-1866 – 250,441 – 16 May 2017
New York Book Indexes to Passenger Lists, 1906-1942 – 13,611,543 – 09 May 2017
Utah, Birth Certificates, 1903-1914 – 99,172 – 17 May 2017
Utah, Weber County Marriages, 1887-1941 – 92,337 – 16 May 2017

Family Group Records Collection, Archives Section, 1942-1969 – Browse Images – 16 May 2017

BillionGraves Index – 20,861,710 – 01 May 2017