Four New Research in the States Guides From the NGS

Four new guides in the National Genealogical Society Research in the States Series are now available. They are for the following states:

And they are 10% off through August 18. Click on the links to order.

Following are descriptions of the four new titles:

Research in Mississippi – NGS Research in the States Series; By Lori Thornton, MLS; The Series is edited by Barbara Vines Little, CG, FNGS, FUGA, FVGS; Published 2017 by the National Genealogical Society, Arlington, VA; 44 pp; Soft Cover, Saddle Stapled; 8.5×11 in.; ISBN: 978-1-935815-25-9; Item # NGS30

The National Genealogical Society’s Research in the States series, of which this book is one, had it’s start in the NGS Quarterly with the publication of “Master Plan for North Carolina Research” in 1987. The Quarterly continued to publish state guides and NGS later issued many of them as special publications. This series includes both revised editions of earlier guides and many new states. Additional states are planned and Family Roots Publishing plans to distribute them as they are printed.

The following is found on the Table of Contents pages of the Mississippi volume:



  • French Province (1699-1763)
  • British West Florida (1763-1779)
  • Spanish Dominion (1779-1798)
  • Mississippi Territory (1798-1817)
  • The State of Mississippi (1817-Present)
  • Jurisdictional Changes
  • Economy


  • Major Repositories
  • Other Repositories


  • Aids to Research
  • Atlases, Gazetteers and Maps
  • Bible Records
  • Biographical Guides
  • Business and Organization / Fraternal Records
  • Cemetery Records / Cemetery Surveys
  • Census Records – Colonial, Territorial, State, Federal Population, Other Federal Censuses
  • County-Level Research
  • Court Records
  • Directories: City and Suburban
  • Ethnic Records – AfricanAmerican; American Indian, Chinese
  • Genealogical and Historical Periodicals
  • Institutional Records
  • Internal Improvements
  • Land Records
  • Military Records – Civil War, Spanish American / Philippine Insurrection, World War I, World War II, Soldiers’ Homes
  • Naturalization and Immigration Records
  • Newspapers
  • Probate Records
  • Railroads
  • Religious Records – Assemblies of God, Baptist, Catholic, Church of God, Churches of Christ, Christian Churches, Disciples of Christ, Jewish, Methodist, Presbyterian
  • School Records
  • Tax Records
  • Vital Records – Adoption, Birth and Death, Marriage, Divorce
  • Women
  • Conclusion


Research in North Carolina – NGS Research in the States Series – Second Edition; By Jeffrey L. Haines, C.G; The Series is edited by Barbara Vines Little, CG, FNGS, FUGA, FVGS; Published 2017 by the National Genealogical Society, Arlington, VA; 44 pp; Soft Cover, Saddle Stapled; 8.5×11 in.; ISBN: 978-1-935815-27-3; Item # NGS29

The following is found on the Table of Contents pages of the North Carolina volume:



  • State Archives of North Carolina
  • State Library of North Carolina’s Government and Heritage Library
  • University of North Carolina
  • University of North Carolina Collections – North Carolina Collection
  • University of North Carolina Collections – Southern Historical Collection
  • Duke University
  • East Carolina University
  • Other Repositories
  • North Carolina Genealogical Society
  • Other Societies


  • Aids to Research
  • Atlases, Gazetteers, and Maps
  • Biographical Guides
  • Business Records
  • Cemetery Records
  • Censuses and Census Substitutes – Federal Censuses
  • Censuses and Census Substitutes – State Censuses
  • City and County Directories
  • City-Level Research
  • County-Level Research
  • Court Records – County Courts
  • Court Records – Higher Courts
  • Court Records – Federal Courts
  • Ethnic Research – African American
  • Ethnic Research – American Indian
  • Ethnic Research – Cherokee
  • Ethnic Research – Lumbee
  • Ethnic Research – Other Tribes
  • Land Records – Colonial Land Grants
  • Land Records – County-Level Records
  • Military Records – Colonial Wars
  • Military Records – American Revolution
  • Military Records Cherokee Wars, War of 1812, and Mexican War
  • Military Records – Civil War
  • Military Records – Post Civil War and Reconstruction Records
  • Military Records – Spanish-American War
  • Military Records – World Wars
  • Naturalization and Immigration Records
  • Newspapers
  • Probate Records
  • Religious Records
  • State-Level Records
  • Tax Records
  • Vital Records – Adoption Records
  • Vital Records – Birth and Death Records
  • Vital Records – Marriage Records
  • Vital Records – Divorce Records
  • Voter Rolls
  • Women of North Carolina
  • Conclusion


Research in Tennessee – NGS Research in the States Series – Second Edition; By Charles A. Sherrill; Edited by Barbara Vines Little; Published 2017 by the National Genealogical Society, Arlington, VA; 40 pp; Soft Cover, Saddle Stapled; 8.5×11 in.; ISBN: 978-1-935815-26-6; Item # NGS28

The following is found on the Table of Contents pages of Research in Tennessee – Second Edition volume:


  • Jurisdiction Changes


  • Tennessee State Library and Archives
  • Tennessee Genealogical Society
  • Tennessee Historical Society
  • Other Facilities


  • Aids to Research
  • Atlases, Gazetteers, and Maps
  • Biographical Sources
  • Cemetery Records
  • Censuses & Census Their Substitutes
  • Church Records
  • County–Level Records
  • County–Level Records – Loose Papers
  • Court Records
  • Court Records
  • County Courts
  • Superior Courts
  • Court System, 1809-1934
  • Chancery Courts
  • Circuit Courts
  • Supreme Court
  • Federal Court
  • Directories: City & Suburban
  • Ethnic Records – Growth & Dispersal
  • Ethnic Records – Ethnic Origins
  • Ethnic Records – African Americans
  • Ethnic Records – Melungeons
  • Ethnic Records American Indians
  • Ethnic Records – Cherokee Resources
  • Ethnic Resources – Chickasaw Resources
  • Ethnic Records – General Information
  • Land Records
  • Land Records – North Carolina Grants
  • Land Records – Tennessee Grants
  • Land Records – Accessing the Grant Records
  • Land Records – County-Level Land Records
  • Military and Pension Records
  • Military Records – Colonial Era
  • Military Records – Revolutionary War
  • Military Records – Indian Campaigns, 1784-1811
  • Military Records – State Militia Activity, 1796-1903
  • Military Records – War of 1812
  • Military Records – Old Indian Wars
  • Military Records – Mexican War
  • Military Records – Civil War
  • Military Records – Spanish American War
  • Military Records – World Wars
  • Naturalization Records
  • Newspapers
  • Probate Records
  • State Records
  • State Records – Legislative Records
  • State Records – Governors’ Records
  • Tax Records
  • Vital Records – Adoption Records
  • Vital Records – Birth and Death Records
  • Vital Records – Marriage and Divorce Records
  • Women
  • Conclusion


Research in American Indians of Oklahoma – NGS Research in the States Series; By Kathy Huber; The Series is edited by Barbara Vines Little, CG, FNGS, FUGA, FVGS; Published 2017 by the National Genealogical Society, Arlington, VA; 40 pp; Soft Cover, Saddle Stapled; 8.5×11 in.; ISBN: 978-1-935815-28-0; Item # NGS31

The following is found on the Table of Contents pages of the American Indians of Oklahoma volume:




  • Oklahoma Historical Society (OHS)
  • National Archives and Records Administration (NARA)
  • National Archives of Fort Worth
  • Western Histories Collection, University of Oklahoma Libraries
  • Helmrich Center for American Research
  • Sequoyah National Research Center (SNRC)


  • Aids to Research
  • Allotment Records
  • Atlases, Gazetteers and Maps
  • Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA)
  • Census Records
  • Citizenship Records
  • Newspapers
  • Oral Histories
  • Personal Papers and Manuscripts
  • Removal Papers
  • School Records
  • Conclusion

Order any of the above books at 10% off through August 18, 2017 by clicking on their respective links.

NGS Research in the States Guides for the following areas are currently available from FRPC:

Bundle of 3 Early American Research Guides – 40% Off thru Feb. 28

Family Roots Publishing has bundled 3 popular research guides, all dealing with early American history and genealogy.

This bundle of 3 items is made of the following:

Tracing Your Colonial American Ancestors

Tracing Your Revolutionary War Ancestors

Tracing Your War of 1812 Ancestors

Following is a partial description of each. Click on the links to see the table of contents for each item. Come back to this page and click here or on the illustration to purchase at 40% off. Just $17.91, plus $5.50 p&h – Normally $29.85 plus $5.50 p&h.

Don’t need all three? Purchase them individually for 30% off at their respective sites. This offer is good through Feb. 28, 2017.

Tracing Your Colonial American Ancestors; by David A. Norris, from the Publishers of “Family Chronicle” and “Internet Genealogy” & “History Magazine”; 2013; paper; 82 pp; 8.5×11; Item #: MM015
Discover Your Colonial Roots

  • Vital Records Sources
  • Revolutionary War Records
  • Militia Records
  • Tax Rolls
  • Colonial Court Records
  • Poll Books
  • Colonial Maps
  • Ship Passenger Lists
  • Land & Probate Records
  • And Much More!

Click here to go to the page for this item, and see the full Table of Contents. Return to this page to order as a bundle.


Tracing Your Revolutionary War Ancestors; Compiled by author David A. Norris: from the Publishers of History Magazine; 68pp; Paper; saddle-stapled; Full Color; 8.5×11; Item # MM022
Start Your Revolutionary War Research!
Locate Your Ancestors In:

  • Military Service Files
  • Navy and Privateer Records
  • Stat Rosters
  • Pensions
  • Cemetery & Death Records
  • Political & Government Records
  • Bounty Land Warrants
  • Loyalist Records
  • And More!

Tracing Your War of 1812 Ancestors; Compiled by David A. Norris; 68 pps; Paper; saddle-stapled; Full Color; 8.5×11; Item # MM012
Resources for USA, Canadian and British Research!

  • Army & Navy Records
  • Bounty Land Warrants
  • Newspapers & Maps
  • Government Records
  • Cemetery Records
  • Pension Records
  • Militia Service
  • Impressment
  • US Marines
  • Prisoners of War
  • And More!

Click here to go to the page for this item, and see the full Table of Contents. Return to this page to order as a bundle.

Click here or on the illustration to purchase the Early American Research Bundle at 40% off. Only $17.91, plus $5.50 p&h – Normally $29.85 plus $5.50 p&h.

Don’t need all three? Purchase them individually for 30% off at their respective sites. This offer is good through Feb. 28, 2017.

Bundle of 2 Genealogy Pocket Reference Guides – 35% off thru December 17, 2016 – Day 2 of the 12 Days of Christmas 2016


Family Roots Publishing has sold thousands of reference books in our time. Two of the most popular guides are the Genealogist’s U.S. History Pocket Reference, and the Family Tree Pocket Reference. These two books are loaded with information helpful to the genealogist.

We’ve put together a bundle of the 2 books and discounted it 35%. Regularly $29.90, we’ve dropped the price 35% to $19.44 (plus $5.50 p&h). The sale runs thru December 17.

Click on the links to see each of the items at their own webpage. Click on your back arrow to return to this page.

Do you have one of these books, but would like the other? We discounted each of the books 20% for this sale at their respective web pages.

The Family Tree Historical Maps Book: A State-by-State Atlas of U.S. History 1790-1900


Since Family Roots Publishing recently began marketing The Family Tree Historical Maps Book: A State-by-State Atlas of U.S. History 1790-1900, I figured it was about time to write a more detailed review of the book than I’ve been able to locate elsewhere. It’s easy to say that there are maps from all 50 states, in alphabetical order, but that doesn’t tell the whole story.

First off, the book is printed in full color, with a color hard cover (no dust jacket). It’s 8.5 x 11 x 3/4 inches in size, and is 223 pages in length. It was printed in 2014. I’ve had a copy since the book came out and often refer to it. The volume lists my friend, Allison Dolan as the publisher/editorial director, Jacqueline Musser as editor, Christy Cotterman as designer, and Debbie Thomas as the production coordinator.

The maps are historic in nature, coming from the famed David Rumsey collection. Since the book is only 8.5 x 11 in size, with many pages having two or more maps on a page, quite a number of the colorful maps had to be shrunk tremendously to fit them on the page. In some cases this caused the town names to be so tiny that they are nearly illegible. If this is the case, I recommend that the user let the map drive them to the David Rumsey collection online to view the map there. In many cases the type in the book is legible however, even though you might have to use your magnifying glass to read the print!

The volume includes:

  • Full-color historical maps of the United States from each decade of the nineteenth century.
  • Detailed, full-color historical maps of all 50 states
  • Charming nineteenth-century panoramic maps of key cities
  • Special-interest maps, which provide intriguing peeks into American society from average family sizes to taxation per capita to regional industries
  • Timelines for each of the states

Family Roots Publishing is currently running a promotion on the volume, discounting it 28% off the normal MSRP, making the price just $25.19. Click here or on the illustration to order.

The following is an expanded Table of Contents, with the maps and illustrations listed in the same order as found within the volume:

America 1755
United States 1783
United States 1805
United States 1816
United States 1832
United States 1839
United States 1846
United States 1852
United States 1862
United States 1867
United States 1876
United States 1885
United States 1899
Alabama 1831
Alabama 1845
Alabama 1852
Alabama Birmingham Panoramic
Alabama 1866
Alabama 1909
Alaska 1898
Arizona 1865
Arizona 1877
Arizona Phoenix 1885 Panoramic
Arizona 1890
Arizona 1909
Arkansas 1826
Arkansas Little Rock 1871 Panoramic
Arkansas 1835
Arkansas 1838
California 1846
California Sacramento 1890 Panoramic
California 1856
California 1867
California 1909
Colorado 1864
Colorado Denver 1908 Panoramic
Colorado 1865
Colorado 1871
Colorado 1885
Colorado 1889
Colorado 1909
Connecticut 1795
Connecticut New Have 1879 Panoramic
Connecticut 1826
Connecticut 1832
Connecticut 1845
Connecticut 1867
Connecticut 1889
Connecticut 1903
Delaware 1795 Continue Reading “The Family Tree Historical Maps Book: A State-by-State Atlas of U.S. History 1790-1900”

First People to Arrive in the Americas Did So by Way of the Pacific Coast

The following teaser is from a post August 10, 2016 at

Paris (AFP) – The first people to reach the Americas could not have passed through the ice sheet-cleaving inland corridor long thought to be the entry point of humans to the continents, according to a study published Wednesday.

More likely, the New World pioneers of our species — probably some 15,000 years ago — inched along a Pacific coastline free enough of ice to support life-sustaining flora and fauna.

The exact route and timing of this maiden migration remains conjecture, the researchers said.

But what is certain, according to findings reported in the journal Nature, is that the textbook version of that passage is wrong.

Read the full article.

Here Today, Gone Tomorrow, and So It Goes – A 6-minute Nostalgic Look Back In Time


This morning, a friend here in Orting who is an active member of the local historical society and just happens to be running for reelection to the city council, sent me an email with a link sending me to a video that took me back to my childhood. I loved it. It took only 6 minutes to watch, and it set the pace for a good day… all day… So I’m sharing it with my readers.

The following is from the website:
Here Today, Gone Tomorrow, and So It Goes is a wonderful look back at some early times and how things have changed since. If you are over the age of 50 then chances are you have many fond memories from your lifetime that you take the time to reflect upon every now and then. Technology has changed dramatically over the last several decades so younger people might not recognize some of the things displayed in this video.

Genetic Research Could Rewrite the History of the First Americans

The following excerpt is from an article by Mark Strauss, posted July 22, 2015 at the National Geographic website:

The Surui people of Brazil are related to indigenous Australians, a new genetic study shows. The research suggests that the prehistoric settlers of the New World could have arrived in two separate waves.  PHOTOGRAPH BY MICHAEL NICHOLS, NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC CREATIVE.
The Surui people of Brazil are related to indigenous Australians, a new genetic study shows. The research suggests that the prehistoric settlers of the New World could have arrived in two separate waves. PHOTOGRAPH BY MICHAEL NICHOLS, NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC CREATIVE.

Since the 1930s, it’s been a generally accepted theory that indigenous Americans are descendants of Siberians who came to the New World by crossing a land bridge into Alaska around 15,000 years ago.

But, the details of that migration remain a source of contention. Did the Asians who trekked across the Bering Strait arrive in one or several waves? Were some of them isolated from the rest, settling on the land bridge until it submerged beneath the water of melting glaciers?

Two new studies—relying on genetic data from living individuals and ancient skeletons—offer possible answers, albeit with different interpretations.

Read the full article.

Ben Affleck Apologizes for Attempting to Conceal Slave-Owning Ancestry


A few days ago, Ben Affleck apologized for the attempt to conceal slave-owning ancestry, which turned up during research for the PBS documentary “Finding Your Roots.” Wikileaks published emails which showed the attempt – which seemed to have worked… for a while.

I find it humorous to see that Affleck was embarrassed by the facts. Goodness, if genealogists let stuff like that worry them, we’d all be embarrassed and would have given up the hobby years ago. Face it. Our ancestors were human, and they did human things… Which were often “not so good.” What I find more interesting is the apparent willingness on the part of PBS and Sony (Gates and Lynton) to “focus on different ancestors.”

Following is a teaser posted April 21, 2015 at the Variety website.

An “embarrassed” Ben Affleck admitted on Tuesday that he tried to conceal his slave-owning ancestors from the PBS documentary “Finding Your Roots.”

The disclosure was made earlier this week after WikiLeaks published over 30,000 hacked emails from Sony Pictures Entertainment.

“I felt embarrassed,” Affleck wrote on Facebook. “The very thought left a bad taste in my mouth.”

Sorry – you can’t choose your ancestors – or relatives for that matter!

Read the full article.

Here’s a CNN article with a different spin

Another view on the story at the Time magazine website.

About the embarrassing ancestor – from Gawker…

Enough already…

American Place Names Of Long Ago — 50% OFF


A Family Roots Publishing Holiday Special: 50% OFF American Place Names Of Long Ago


Read the Review:

gpc225George Cram’s Unrivaled Atlas of the World contains an index of over 100,000 place names of “every county, city, town, village, and post-office in the United States and shows the population of the same according to the Census of 1890.American Place Names Of Long Ago is a republication of the Index to Cram’s Unrivaled Atlas of the World, as Based on the Census of 1890. Assembled and with an Introduction by Gilbert S. Bahn, Ph.D.

So why an index, a list, of places names from over 120 years ago? Well, when you consider how many nineteenth-century place names have changed or disappeared in the intervening years, and that 45 percent of the places listed in this index were too small or obscure to have their population counts listed by the census taker, the importance of such a work is self-evident. Indeed, there may be no official record of many of these places, and Cram’s index may be the only tool to guide you from an obscure location to the correct county courthouse.

Bahn further explains the value and purpose of this index:

“There are a variety of reasons why a place name that served its purpose well enough long ago may not be found in a modern finding tool. When one is looking for persons—one’s own ancestors or someone else’s—the story behind the disappearance of a place name is immaterial. Just finding where on a map that place was, in order to search for records, is the objective. Moreover, as I believe always to be the case in American genealogy, the test is to place the locality within the correct county where the appropriate records may be expected to reside—if they were indeed created and if they survived over time.”

Cram had the benefit of working with the 1890 census before it was destroyed. According to Gilbert Bahn, census enumerators listed all place names on their tabulation sheets, even when the population counts were too small to warrant recording. Thus, Cram was able to compile an extremely detailed list of place names–and an accurate list, at that, because the names were recorded by local enumerators and automatically tied in to their respective counties! It is fair to say that the compilation of such a list would have been impossible without the 1890 census.

The original index as published in the 1898 edition of Cram’s Unrivaled Atlas occupied 106 pages, each with six columns. For purposes of this reprint edition, the six columns have been rearranged into three; otherwise there has been no change to the original text. Each entry, in alphabetical order within states, gives the place name, the county in which the place is located, and the population of the place at the time of the census. State capitals and large cities are in caps, county seats are in boldface, post offices are in roman type, and places that are not post offices are rendered in italics. Places that were too small for a population count are indicated by an X.

This index is an unexpectedly rich source of information, and thanks to Dr. Bahn we are now able to place it before an appreciative audience.


Order American Place Names Of Long Ago from Family Roots Publishing; Item #: GPC225

Sketches of Prominent Tennesseans — 50% OFF


A Family Roots Publishing Holiday Special: 50% OFF Sketches of Prominent Tennesseans


Read the Review:

In his History of New Hampshire, historian Everett Schermerhorn Stackpole attempts to answer the question, “What makes a man prominent?” In his words:

“Whoever has helped notably in the great march of human progress deserves credit therefor in the popular estimation. Abilities, character and achievement make men prominent. Learning and money may be helpful, but they are not enough; without character they may the sooner sink one into oblivion.”

This seems to me as good as any definition. By whatever scale of prominence men have chosen to use, historians has provided us with tales, biographies, and accounts of men deemed important in their own right. Histories are written of events from those that changed the world to the deeds of men known only in their own communities. Either way, research can help uncover these men and their deeds. Family historians should take note that many of these histories contain vital genealogical data about not only individuals of prominence, but also their families, their acquaintances, and those with whom they interact, fixing these individual in time and place.

Sketches of Prominent Tennesseans, by William S. Speer, is a prime example of a selective history of men considered prominent with in their state. By whatever right the Honorable William Speer thought these men important, he has immortalized their names through the written word. First published in 1888, Speer selected 259 men from 19th century Tennessee for his historical record.

“I had a native ambition to rise from obscurity and make myself useful in the world, to shine and be distinguished.” ~ The  Hon. Neil S. Brown, one of the 259 prominent 19th-century Tennesseans profiled in this extraordinary book.

It is this kind of unique first-hand biographical information that makes Sketches of Prominent Tennesseans unequaled in the canon of Tennessee genealogical literature. Not only did compiler William S. Speer have the unparalleled opportunity to interview a number of the featured Tennesseans himself, he also was able to garner–and include in this book–thousands and thousands of names of their family members, friends, and colleagues.

Republished in 2008, this type of book is a treasure to both those interested in Tennessean history as well as to genealogists. As would be hoped, these sketches include many details about the lives of these men and their families. Speer offers, often extraordinary, insight into the personal, professional, and sometimes even physical characteristics that made each of these men a success. A complete list of names, or even surnames, would be too lengthy to list here. However, below is a list of surnames of those men highlighted in this book.


Pick up a copy of Sketches of Prominent Tennesseans from Family Roots Publishing; Price: $44.10.


Surnames featured in the book:

  • Anderson
  • Arrington
  • Atkins
  • Atlee

Continue Reading “Sketches of Prominent Tennesseans — 50% OFF”

Stage-Coach and Tavern Days

hbe0820Growing up I read my share of novels. Many of these included fantasy stories where taverns often play a major role as meeting place, rest stop, and center of information. Then there were the stories of the “wild west” where gun fights and town business seem to always center around shady activities and entertainment found in the nearest saloon. Though I knew from history, taverns and inns have often, if not always, played a major role as a community meeting place, as well as a way point for travelers, little did I think about the role of such in early America. Yet, according to Stage-Coach and Tavern Days, by Alice Morse Earle, these facilities were critical to the early colonies. Some colonial governments even made it law that each town have an operating “ordinary” or “a common victuallying house” or pay penalties.

This book offers an interesting view into the “enormous role of taverns and modes of travel in colonial culture.” The book speaks of America’s famous Revolutionaries plotting for Independence within tavern walls. Economic growth and decisions were shaped by alcohol and its sale in taverns. Even turnpikes popped up along old “Indian paths” when a tavern stood along the route.

The first chapter offers insight into Puritan life in a way many don’t consider when thinking of these early settlers for who religion dominated much of their lifestyle. Yet, for most towns, the ordinary was second in importance only to the church. Here people gathered, took and shared the news, filled their social needs and found entertainment.

Through 19 chapters, “both light-hearted and serious,” the author explores in detail the role of taverns and early transportation in the colonies. These facilities date back to even the earliest periods. This book offers more than 150 illustrations; plus, an index of names, subjects, and places (including names of taverns). Learn of the role entertainment and enticements, bans and approval for games both of chance and challenge, and the ever present spirits. Stories and personal quotes add to Alice Earle’s narrative; truly, making the book both informative as well as fun to read.



  1. The Puritan Ordinary
  2. Old-time Taverns
  3. The Tavern Landlord
  4. Tavern Fate and Tavern Ways
  5. Kill-devil and its Affines
  6. Small Drink
  7. Signs and Symbols
  8. The Tavern in War
  9. The Tavern Panorama
  10. From Path to Turnpike
  11. Packhorse and Conestoga Wagon
  12. Early Stage-coaches and Other Vehicles
  13. Two Stage Veterans of Massachusetts
  14. A Staging Centre
  15. The Stage-driver
  16. The Romance of the Road
  17. The Pains of Stage-coach Travel
  18. Knights of the Road
  19. Tavern Ghosts


Pick up a copy of Stage-Coach and Tavern Days from Family Roots Publishing; Price: $35.77.

The Germans in Colonial Times

hbb0090Germans are the second largest ethnic group in the United States. Only those of English descent are more numerous. Even so, both groups represent generations of families living in America. These days, around a million people each year legally immigrate to the U.S. Countless more people immigrate illegally into the country hoping for a better life. The number of Germans or English coming to the U.S. today is hardly measurable amongst other immigrant groups. However, because of the waves of immigration from these two countries hundreds of years ago, they are still the foundation for the larger part of the U.S. population. Not even the large influx of Scots and Irish ever matched the overall migration of Germans. Germans were among the earliest people to move in mass to the New World. The Germans in Colonial Times examines the life of the earliest German settlers, their lives, their participation in the colonies, and even their part in the Revolutionary War.

This book is a facsimile reprint of the original work by Lucy Forney Bittinger. Her initial release was in 1901. Her turn of the [last] century writing style and word choice add some flavor to the book. She was concerned about the lack of knowledge and information people had about these early Germans and their deeds, even by their decedents. Quoting from the forward, “…even the descendants of these Teutonic pioneers are often ignorant or—more inexcusable—ashamed of their progenitors…”

In these pages you will find stories and essays on the history of Germans in American. How and why they came, the skills they brought with them, and their contributions in the colonies and in the Revolutionary War. Learning the history of these early German settlers can provide a sense of appreciation for their works and contributions to the country as a whole. Plus, learning specific history can sometimes help lead researchers to unexpected information and sources of information.



  1. Conditions in Germany Which Led to Emigration
  2. Penn’s Visit to Germany
  3. Germantown
  4. The Labadists in Maryland
  5. The Woman in the Wilderness
  6. German Valley, New Jersey
  7. Kocherthal’s Colony
  8. The Great Exodus of the Palatines
  9. Pequae and the Mennonites
  10. The Dunkers and Ephrata
  11. The Schwenkfelder and Christopher Dock
  12. The Progress of Settlement in the Valley of Virginia and in Maryland
  13. The Germans in South Carolina
  14. German Colonization in New England
  15. The Salzburgers in Georgia and the Pennsylvania Germans in North Carolina
  16. The German Press
  17. The Moravians
  18. Conrad Weiser and the Frontier Wars
  19. The “Royal American” Regiment
  20. The Redemptioners
  21. The Germans as Pioneers
  22. The Germans in the Revolution
  23. “The Rear-Guard of the Revolution”


Learn of these early German with your own copy of The Germans in Colonial Times, available from Family Roots Publishing.

Full Steam Ahead

Steamboats on the Mississippi and Ohio rivers changed this young country in dramatic ways, transforming the Ohio-Mississippi River Basin almost overnight. The steamboat brought commerce, quickened immigrations, and began a building frenzy as new town sprung up all along the frontier. Growth was rapid and the economy of the area boomed and it all began with one steamboat, the New Orleans. Full Steam Ahead: Reflections on the Impact of the First Steamboat on the Ohio River, 1811–2011tells the story of the New Orleans and the new age of prosperity it brought to Ohio-Mississippi River Basin.

Full Steam Ahead is a collection of essays on the development of the steamboat, river transportation, and their effect on Ohio River cities. The book is part of a larger project led by the Rivers Institute at Hanover College. The study, this book, and other exhibits are meant to help the community at large better understand the impact the New Orleans, and subsequent steam travel, had on the economy, technology, and culture of both the Midwest and the U.S. as a whole.

Chapters in this book look at detail of life aboard the boat with crew and captain. Construction and design are examined with drawings providing interesting details. Additional boats and changes brought over time are discussed. Essay by essay a story unfolds and history examined with exciting details and interesting facts. From the moment the New Orleans left port in Pittsburgh in October 1811, change become unstoppable. Through the years, into the Civil War, and beyond, transport capable of traveling not only down river, but also up river would continue to have a major impact on the entire region.


Table of Contents





Harbinger of Revolution

Structural Evolution of the Western Rivers Steamboat

A Synoptic History of Towboating and Its Origins

The Era of Town Building Below the Falls: “Whatever will benefit a part—will benefit the whole”

“Omen of Evil”: Steamboats and the Colonization of the Ohio River Valley

The Steamboat and Black Urban Life in the Ohio Valley

Steamboat Music

The Steamboat New Orleans and Its Impact on Navigation on Ohio River Tributaries

The Ohio River: A World-Class Inland Waterway


The River Today and Tomorrow

Appendix 1

Belle of Louisville

Sole Survivor of the Pioneering New Orleans

Appendix 2

The Rivers Institute at Hanover College

A List of Materials on River People, Steamboats and the Ohio-Mississippi River System in the Agnes Brown Duggan Library



To order a copy of Full Steam Ahead: Reflections on the Impact of the First Steamboat on the Ohio River, 1811–2011, visit Family Roots Publishing.

American Wars Research Bundle on Sale for 30% Off Thru Memorial Day!


To celebrate the Memorial Day weekend, Family Roots Publishing is offering a bundle of three popular American war-related research guides from the publishers of History Magazine.

FRPC is discounting them 30% through Memorial Day, May 26, 2014. Regularly 29.85, the bundle is just $20.95 (plus only $5.50 p&h!) The guides are as follows:

Click on the links to learn more about the individual research guides or to purchase just one of the items at 15% off during the holiday weekend. Hurry, as this sale ends at midnight MST Monday, May 26, 2014.

Following are reviews of each of the guides:

Life During the Civil War

Life During the Civil War is an educational and entertaining collection of articles on the war, written by David A. Norris. Norris takes the reader beyond the battle fields and into the homes and occupations of Americans, including the soldiers, ans examines what they saw, heard, and felt during these trying years. Everyday life is the theme behind the collection. This publications answers, in vivid detail, what the average American experienced during the Civil War.

David Norris is an avid writer and historian with over 250 publications to his name. His publications have appeared online and in print in Family Chronicle, History Magazine,, American History, Civil War Times, and many more. The Civil War has been a passion of his since childhood. In particular, he loves the personal stories. Anyone would be hard pressed to call him anything but an expert on American life during 1860s.

There are, in this publication, article which cover common, even expected, topics. Food and cooking, life in the military, and even photography are common enough topics to find in almost any expose on the war. However, Norris digs even deeper covering topics like humor, pets in the army, army laundresses, war artists, common medicines, naval life on an ironclad, and fundraising fairs. It seems like you will find it all in these 26 articles. You will learn about the war. If you have ancestors who lived at that time, then you will learn about their lives, the way the thought and lived. Best of all, you will have fun doing it.



OPENING NOTES – Notes From the Publisher, About the Author
FROM ABATIS TO ZOUAVES: A CIVIL WAR DICTIONARY – What were some of the popular sayings, slang, jargon and military terms in the 1860s?
TALE OF TWO CAPITALS: RICHMOND AND WASHINGTON – The war brought great changes to the lives of residents of Richmond and Washington
HOME AWAY FROM HOME: HOTELS OF THE CIVIL WAR – From four-star resorts to small town hostelries, hotel business boomed during the war
SOUNDTRACK TO A CONFLICT: MUSIC OF THE CIVIL WAR – Music, whether popular songs or military tunes, was as much a part of life then as it is now
STARVATION PARTIES AND CONFEDERATE CANDLES? – Southerners found unusual substitutes for scarce staples, like wheat, pins, shoe polish and coffee
SLUMGULLION, SALT HORSE AND HELL-FIRED STEW! – What did soldiers, and their families at home, eat during the war years?
RELIEF FROM REALITY: CIVIL WAR HUMOR – Popular humorists and jokes helped lighten hearts on both sides of the battle
SHINPLASTERS AND GREENBACKS: MONEY DURING THE CIVIL WAR – Banks, businesses, states, the Union and Confederacy all issued their own, incompatible, money
ZOUAVES: NEW YORK FIREMEN AND LOUISIANA TIGERS – Instead of the familiar blue and gray, some regiments donned bright colors and turbans
MAN’S BEST FRIENDS: PETS IN THE ARMY – From the exotic to the common, animals were kept as companions and mascots
JOHNNIE REB AND BILLY YANK: LIFE IN THE ARMIES – Fresh recruits and veterans of past conflicts faced new, and familiar,challenges in the Civil War
FIGHTING FOR FREEDOM: THE US COLORED TROOPS – African-American troops played a vital role in the Civil War
SUTLER SHOPS: CONVENIENCE STORES FOR SOLDIERS – Where did soldiers get ink, ginger snaps or Valentine cards?
LIFE ON SOAP SUDS ROW: ARMY LAUNDRESSES – Laundry was a grueling, but essential, duty in army camps
TAKING THE CARS: RAIL TRAVEL DURING THE CIVIL WAR – Though far from luxurious, or safe, trains became vital to the war effort and civilian life
WHAT THE DOCTOR ORDERED: HOSPITALS AND MEDICINE – Hospitals were understaffed, undersupplied and relied on dangerous cures and treatments
COMMON CIVIL WAR MEDICINES – Hospitals stocked standard treatments of the day, including mercury, opium and brandy
FUNDRAISING FAIRS: THE US SANITARY COMMISSION – Volunteer groups raised millions of dollars to improve military hospital and camp conditions
PICTURING THE CIVIL WAR: WAR ARTISTS – Before modern photography and TV, how did people get a glimpse of the battles?
FROM THE FRONTLINES TO THE HOMEFRONT: NEWSPAPERS – Despite shortages of labor and ink, papers fed the public appetite for news and entertainment
TELEGRAMS: AT THE SPEED OF LIGHTNING – The telegraph became an indispensable part of military and commercial communication during the war
WORTH A THOUSAND WORDS: PHOTOGRAPHY IN THE CIVIL WAR – Despite technological limitations, photography boomed during the Civil War
“I HAIN’T GOT ANY STAMPS”: CONFEDERATE AND UNION MAIL – Two postal systems kept soldiers and families in contact across shifting battlelines
THE CIVIL WAR NAVIES: COTTONCLADS AND BLOCKADES – Whether they patrolled rivers or the South Pacific, a sailor’s life was far different than a soldier’s
THE NEW NAVAL WARFARE: LIFE ON IRONCLADS – Heavily armored ironclads offered unique advantages, and dangers, to their crews
MISSED IT BY THAT MUCH…! – From aseptic surgery to moon landings, the years after the Civil War were full of amazing changes.

Order your individual copy of Life During the Civil War from Family Roots Publishing at 15% off during the holiday weekend; Item #: MM001 – or order the American Wars Research bundle for 30% off.

Tracing Your Civil War Ancestors

Tracing Your Civil War Ancestors is a collection of articles written by Civil War expert David A. Norris. These articles bring together Norris expertise on the War with his passion for genealogy. These articles examine all different types of records, both military and civilian, to hep the researcher identify potential resources and to find those critical records.

As the country, over a four year periods, recognizes the 150th anniversary of America’s most troubled period, genealogists can take advantage of the spotlight on the war as means to find even more historical data and records than ever before. To see how this collection can help the researcher discover ancestral information from this time period, see the following list of articles presented in this 82 page journal:

  • The First Steps to Finding a Civil War Ancestor – Some thoughts and tips on getting started in Civil War research.
  • Companies and Regiments: Civil War Army Units – Knowing how the armies were structured will help you understand records and references.
  • Non-Regimental and “Untypical” Soldiers – Some tips for finding soldier ancestors in unusual categories.
  • Emergency Troops, Militia and Home Guard – Records of temporary units might reveal a hard-to-find ancestor’s service.
  • Ensigns and Engineers: Ancestors in the Navies – Though tracking a relative in the navy can be challenging, there are many valuable resources available.
  • US Colored Troops and African-American Sailors – Here are some resources for African-Americans who served in the Civil War.
  • Southern Loyalists and “Galvanized Yankees” – Here are some resources to check for Southern ancestor’s who served with the Union.
  • To Helmira and Back: Prisoners of War – POW resources can fill in holes in your ancestor’s record, or reveal the fate of a missing ancestor.
  • Medical Records and Hospital Personnel – Records from Civil War hospitals contain a wealth of information on soldiers and staff.
  • Military Pay Resources – Civil War payroll records pay off again for genealogists.
  • The Civil War and the Census – Pre- and postwar censuses offering important information on the lives and families of veterans.
  • The 1865 Parole Lists: To the Very End – These documents list the Confederate soldiers who endured to the end of the war.
  • Finding You Ancestors’ Flags – Regimental flags had important practical and symbolic purposes for Civil War Soldiers.
  • Buried in History: Civil War Cemeteries – Finding a soldier’s grave can seem impossible, but it doesn’t have to be a lost cause.
  • Civil War Pension Records and Wartime Relief – Pension records are a genealogical treasure trove for soldiers and their families.
  • Confederate State Pension Resources – A state-by-state guide to locating Confederate pension records.
  • Soldiers’, Sailors’ and Widows’ Resources – The records of these institutions may contain a wealth of detail that can’t be found elsewhere.
  • Civil War Veterans’ Groups – Records of veterans’ organizations might let you follow your ancestor into the 20th-century.
  • Wartime Civilian Records– Relatives who were not in the military may still have left a wealth of information about their lives.
  • Amnesty Papers and Southern Claims – Some potentially helpful sources for Southern relatives.
  • Spies, Smugglers and “Disloyal Citizens” – Records of civilian prisoners include ordinary citizens, political prisoners, and even politicians.
  • Finding Civil War Income Tax Records – You might find that your ancestors’ 1860s tax records are a source of family history.
  • A Gift From the Past: Civil War Newspapers – Here are some tips on finding your newsmaker ancestors.
  • A Picture in time: Civil War Era Photographs – You can find photos of people and places connected to your family, or even your ancestors.
  • Best of the Best: Classic Civil War Resources – These records contain the most essential information for Civil War Research.
  • National Archives Records – A soldier’s Compiled Military Service Record contains some of the most essential details of his service.
  • Finding Your Way Through the Civil War With Maps – Maps can help you follow your ancestor during the war or find a family farm near a battlefield.

Don’t miss this opportunity for a great deal on expert advice to finding Civil War era records and document. The booklet is heavily illustrated, highly informative, and a great value at only $9.95 less 15% this weekend! Order your copy of Tracing Your Civil War Ancestors from Family Roots Publishing; Item #: MM004 – or order the American Wars Research bundle for 30% off!

Tracing Your War of 1812 Ancestors

war of 1812 ancestorsCreated as a “200th Anniversary Research Special, Tracing Your War of 1812 Ancestors, covers resources for the United States, Canada, and British research. Moorshead Magazines, publishers of Family Chronicle, Internet Genealogy, and History Magazine, have published this special volume in memory of, and to provide assistance in researching, the War of 1812. This 82 page special offers 19 articles, covering such topics as:

  • Army & Navy Records
  • Bounty Land Warrants
  • Newspapers & Maps
  • Government Records
  • Cemetery Records
  • Pension Records
  • Militia Service
  • Impressment
  • US Marines
  • Prisoners of War
  • And More!

Major events, especially war, generates mountains of records, histories, and documents. Newspapers, government and military records, and other records offer names and details about our ancestors which may not have been documented if not for these historical events. Regular contributor and expert David A. Norris has compiled helpful guides, a chronology of events, an introduction, and other articles for this publication; providing, great insight into evaluating potential sources of information and hunting those sources down.



War of 1812: Introduction

An introduction to look at what resources are available to researchers

Chronology & Outline

An outline of the war, and the causes and resolution

US Government Records

Local government records could reveal details of an ancestor’s home and life

Canadian War of 1812 Records

Published and online sources make tracking Canadian soldiers much easier

British War of 1812 Records

Tips on resources for locating ancestors who may have fought with the British Army or Royal Navy

US Army Records

A bit of digging might uncover a treasure trove of information on an ancestor in the US Army

United States Marines

Although US Marines were a small force in 1812, a number of resources exist for them

Naval Records

New resources provide valuable details on the lives of sailors in the US Navy

Prize Money: Spoils of War

Prize money could more than double a sailors pay

Militia Service

Most veterans of the War of 1812 served brief periods in the militia

Bounty Land Warrants

Land bounty records are a valuable source of information on veterans and their heirs

Cemetery Records

A number of resources are available that can help you locate burial sites


Maritime records are useful research tools and document a tumultuous era


Historic maps help bring the War of 1812 era, and your family history, to life


Pension files can reveal where your ancestor was born, where they lived and died and more

Privateer & Naval Pensions

An important genealogical resource for anyone researching a maritime ancestor

Newspapers: Breaking News!

Newspapers of the War of 1812 era are a valuable genealogical and historical resource

Prisoners Of War

Records of prisoners of war can provide additional details of an ancestor’s life

Last Survivors

As a rule of thumb, the last survivor of a war will live roughly 90 years after the war

Individual opies of Tracing Your War of 1812 Ancestors are available from Family Roots Publishing at $9.75, less 15% – of order the American Wars Research bundle for 30% off! Hurry, as this offer ends at midnight MST, Monday, May 26, 2014.

Crucible of War: The Seven Years’ War and the Fate of Empire in British North America, 1754-1766


Fred Anderson’s Crucible of War is probably my favorite history book ever written. The book is about the Seven-Years War, otherwise known as the French and Indian War – a war that led directly to the American Revolution. If there hadn’t been a French and Indian War, there may very well not have ever been a revolution of the English colonies in America. It’s well written and a volume that I recommend to everyone.

Following is a review written in 2013 by Andy Pomeroy:

Do you think you know what the Seven Years’ War was about? Do you really understand it influence on shaping the colonies as a precursor to the American Revolution? After reading The Crucible of War you may just change your mind.

Winston S. Churchill called the Seven Years’ War the first world war. North Americans associate it primarily with the British conquest of Canada. But the conflict — in which Britain and Prussia opposed France, Austria and Spain — spread to Europe, the Caribbean, West Africa, India and the Philippines. Though it formally lasted from 1756 until 1763, the war’s first shots were fired in the spring of 1754 between French troops asserting their country’s claim to the Ohio Valley and Virginians commanded by the 22-year-old George Washington. Two of America’s most eminent historians devoted years of research and writing to the great contest for empire. In the 20th century Lawrence Henry Gipson published a three-volume history. In the 19th century Francis Parkman considered his ”Montcalm and Wolfe” to be his crowning achievement. Now Fred Anderson, a professor of history at the University of Colorado, has written a panoramic narrative of the North American phase of the Seven Years’ War, an ambitious undertaking he discharges superbly. ~ CHARLES ROYSTER, New York Times Book Review (New York Times on the Web; Article Link)

Fred Andres is an Associate Professor of History at the University of Colorado, Boulder. His goal, like that of many historians, was to write a “book accessible to general readers that will also satisfy [his] fellow historian’s scholarly expectations.” In the Crucible of War: The Seven Years’ War and the Fate of Empire in British North America, 1754-1766, Fred Anderson succeeded marvelously. This book is an historical narrative describing the events, people, and politics associated with what the colonists called the French and Indian War. In these pages you learn how and where many future leaders of the American Revolution developed their political view points and honed their military skills.

“Histories of the American Revolution tend to start in 1763, the end of the Seven Year’s War, a worldwide struggle for empire that pitted France against England in North America, Europe, and Asia. Fred Anderson, who teaches history at the University of Colorado, takes the story back a decade and explains the significance of the conflict in American history. Demonstrating that independence was not inevitable or even at first desired by the colonists, he shows how removal of the threat from France was essential before Americans could develop their own concepts of democratic government and defy their imperial British protectors. Of great interest is the importance of Native Americans in the conflict. Both the French and English had Indian allies; France’s defeat ended a diplomatic system in which Indian nations, especially the 300-year-old Iroquois League, held the balance between the colonial powers. In a fast-paced narrative, Anderson moves with confidence and ease from the forests of Ohio and battlefields along the St. Lawrence to London’s House of Commons and the palaces of Europe. He makes complex economic, social, and diplomatic patterns accessible and easy to understand. Using a vast body of research, he takes the time to paint the players as living personalities, from George III and George Washington to a host of supporting characters. The book’s usefulness and clarity are enhanced by a hundred landscapes, portraits, maps, and charts taken from contemporary sources. Crucible of War is political and military history at its best; it never flags and is a pleasure to read. ~ JOHN STEVENSON, Professor/Dean at the University of Colorado

Few people have a true appreciation for the role of The Seven Years’ War in both America as well as the world at large. Few historians have the knack for narrative that Anderson excels at within these pages. The pages turn as easily as those in a favorite novel.

Here is more praise for this historical work:

“A wonderful book. Fred Anderson brings to life  a war that irrevocably shaped our nation. I wish all history were written this well.” ~ SEBASTIAN JUGER, author of The Perfect Storm.

“Reading Crucible of War is an enriching experience…Anyone who thinks that individuals have no significant effect on the fate of nations should ponder Mr. Anderson’s cast of characters.” ~ The Wall Street Journal



List of Illustrations

Introduction: The Seven Years’ War and the Disruption of the Old British Empire


Prologue: Jumonville’s Glen, May 28, 1754

Part I: The Origins of the Seven Years’ War, 1450-1754

  1. Iroquoia and Empire
  2. The Erosion of Iroquois Influence
  3. London Moves to Counter a Threat
  4. Washington Steps onto the Stage…
  5. …And Stumbles
  6. Escalation

Part II: Defeat, 1754-1755

  1. The Albany Congress and Colonial Disunion
  2. General Braddock Takes Command
  3. Disaster on the Monogahela
  4. After Braddock: William Shirley and the Norther Campaigns
  5. British Politics, and a Revolution in European Diplomacy

Part III: Nadir, 1756-1757

  1. Lord Loundoun Takes Command
  2. Oswego
  3. The State of the Central Colonies
  4. The Strains of Empire: Causes of Anglo-American Friction
  5. Britain Drifts into a European War
  6. The Fortunes of War in Europe
  7. Loudoun’s Offensive
  8. Fort William Henry
  9. Other Disasters, and a Ray of Hope
  10. Pitt Changes Course

Part IV: Turning Point, 1758

  1. Deadlock, and a New Beginning
  2. Old Strategies, New Men, and a Shift in the Balance
  3. Montcalm Raises a Cross: The Battle of Ticonderoga
  4. Amherst at Louisbourg
  5. Supply Holds the Key
  6. Bradstreet at Fort Frontenac
  7. Indian Diplomacy and the Fall of Fort Duquesne
  8. Educations in Arms

Part V: Annus Mirabilis, 1759

  1. Success, Anxiety, and Power: The Ascent of William Pitt
  2. Ministerial Uncertainties
  3. Surfeit of Enthusiasm, Shortage of Resources
  4. Emblem of Empire: Fort Pitt and the Indians
  5. The Six Nations Join the Fight: The Siege of Niagara
  6. General Amherst Hesitates: Ticonderoga and Crown Point
  7. Dubious Battle: Wolfe Meets Montcalm at Quebec
  8. Fall’s Frustrations
  9. Celebration of Empire, Expectations of the Millennium
  10. Day of Decision: Quiberon Bay

Part VI: Conquest Completed, 1760

  1. War in Full Career
  2. The Insufficiency of Valor: Levis and Vauquelin at Quebec
  3. Murray Ascends the St. Lawrence
  4. Conquest Completed: Vaudreuil Surrenders at Montreal
  5. The Causes of Victory and the Experience of Empire
  6. Pitt Confronts an Unexpected Challenge

Victory Recollected: Scenographia Americana

Part VIII: Vexed Victory, 1761-1763

  1. The Fruits of victory and the Seeds of Disintegration
  2. The Cherokeet War and Amherst’s Reforms in Indian Policy
  3. Amherst’s Dilemma
  4. Pitt’s Problems
  5. The End of an Alliance
  6. The Intersections of Empire, Trade, and War: Havana
  7. Peace
  8. The Rise of Wilkes, the Fall of Bute, and the Unheeded Lesson of Manila
  9. Anglo-America at War’s End: The Fragility of Empire
  10. Yankees Invade Wyoming—and Pay the Price
  11. Amherst’s Reforms and Pontiac’s War
  12. Amhert’s Recall

Part VIII: Crisis and Reform, 1764

  1. Death Reshuffles a Ministry
  2. An Urgent Search for Order: Grenville and Halifax Confront the Need for Revenue and Control
  3. The American Duties Act (The Sugar Act)
  4. The Currency Act
  5. Postwar Conditions and the Context of Colonial Response
  6. An Ambiguous Response to Imperial Initiatives
  7. Pontiac’s Progress
  8. The Lessons of Pontiac’s War

Part IX: Crisis Compounds, 1765-1766

  1. Stamp Act and Quartering Act
  2. Grenville’s End
  3. The Assemblies Vacillate
  4. Mobs Respond
  5. Nullification by Violence, and an Elite Effort to Reassert Control

Part X: Empire Preserved? 1766

  1. The Repeal of the Stamp Act
  2. The Hallowness of Empire
  3. Acrimonious Postlude: The Colonies after Repeal
  4. The Future of Empire

Epilogue: Mount Vernon, June 24, 1767





Crucible of War: The Seven Years’ War and the Fate of Empire in British North America, 1754-1766 is available from Family Roots Publishing; Price: $22.54.